|Type of paper:||Essay|
|Categories:||Psychology Social psychology Human behavior|
Lying in the social environment
In the course of their lives, human beings are sometimes put in a position that they have to lie. A lie is the opposite of the truth. Some lie deliberately while some would lie without realizing that they lied. Nevertheless, lying can be quite harmful to the person giving the lie and to the individual being deceived. Lying has destroyed friendship, families and even business. There are different types of lies that humans give and they do so for some reasons.
The first common type of a lie that people give is through omission. Here, individuals deliberately leave out information that they know is important to the person they are speaking to. This type of lie is easy with no much risk. The individual giving this type of a lie does not have to invent any foreign stories; rather they would need to omit some parts of the story that they are not will to share. This lie is passive, and the liar does not feel much guilt when they give it. The reasons for this type of a lie usually vary. Some omit the truth not to hurt others, in most cases being their loved once. Others overlook the truth so as not get in trouble since they know telling things as they will not benefit them.
Another foe of lie is one caused by an error. Here, a person believes whatever they are saying is the truth while in the real sense they are telling a lie. These individuals are so convinced about the position they hold such that they do not consider they can be wrong. Additionally, they feel no guilt since they think they are telling the truth, but they are lying. This type of a lie can be caused by an individual being overconfident or not having the correct information.
Lying in denial is also another common type of a lie. This type of an error is occasioned by the constant refusal to accept or acknowledge the truth. These type of lie can affect any individual, especially when think they hold a superior opinion. Furthermore, individuals who practice this kind of a lie can experience guilt especially when they realize they were wrong.
Additionally, exaggeration sometimes can lead to lying. When a person gets excited about a story they are giving, there can be a possibility of them saying things that are too far from the truth. Also, when individuals want to show that they are living a good or successful life, they might end up lying to prove their case to their peers. This kind of lie can continue for a longer period as the liar can occasionally update the lying to suit his or her situation. This kind of a lie is caused by many factors among them being pressure from other individuals who are successful in the society.
Conclusively, lying is a serious issue in the society. Many people get into a habit of lying due to different reasons. Some get into lying without knowing while others see it as the only opportunity. This makes lying to be of different types among different individuals.
Classification of Lies
In an ideal world, everyone would tell the truth and honesty would not just be the best policy but the only policy. However, it is far from an ideal world and virtually everyone has lied consciously or unconsciously. In attempting to understand the impact of lies and how to prevent being lied to, knowing the types of lies used and the major reasons and motivation beyond them is helpful.
There are a variety of criteria used to classify lies but the widely used method is classifying lies by their nature or form. In such a classification you have three main types as outlined below;
1. Lies of commission
These are the blatant types of lies where none of what is being said is factual. It basically involves twisting the truth or the correct account to suit a specific purpose. It could be a simple thing like one admitting he or she did something when the opposite is actually true or an eyewitness giving a false account of events.
2. Lies of omission
In this type of lie the account is given is true to some extent but the person leaves out vital information that would affect the evaluation of the issue or information at hand. For example, a salesperson while selling an item to a customer omits information such as the costly nature of maintenance or the fragile aspects so that the customer is more disposed to making the purchase.
3. Lies of character or influence
In this type of lie, a person gives extra information which most of the time is not sought to try and build his or her credibility and appear truthful and beyond any wrongdoing or capable of telling a lie. For example, a medical professional when asked if he is guilty of negligence answers by saying he has a professional oath and has been doing the job for years without any wrongdoing.
People use these types of lies for different purposes though many tend to be driven by the following reasons;
1. To avoid punishment
This is one of the main reasons for lying in most cases especially among children and those under superiors. When the result of telling the truth is punishment in whichever form, most people will resort to tell a false account even at the risk of being found out.
2. To maintain a sense of autonomy
This is usually among children and parties who feel lorded or desire a sense of their own freedom. Lying and not being found out provides that.
3. As a means of aggression
This is largely by people to harm others through giving the wrong information knowing the target of their lies will suffer as a consequence.
4. To manipulate the behaviors of others
Other types of lies are about being able to manipulate the behavior or action taken by others. It could be either for the benefit of the lying party or that of the party being lied to.
5. For self-esteem and creating a false identity
Other times people lie to give a wrong account that they believe will influence other people to look at them positively and in return improve their self-esteem.
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