|Type of paper:||Literature review|
Definition of Emotional Intelligence
Emotional intelligence is the capacity of an individual to identify, assess, and control feelings of oneself and those of others as well (Serrat, 2017 p.330; Schutte, Malouff & Thorsteinsson, 2013 p.56). According to Fiori et al., (2014), a person has to have the five elements such as self-awareness, inspiration, social skills, compassion, and self-regulation to be able to influence the emotion of an individual (1). On the other hand, Mortan et al., (2014) define EI as the psychological processes that deal with recognizing, and managing of individual and other people's emotional conditions to resolve complications and regulate conduct (97).
Significance of emotional intelligence
First, EI helps individuals to be more creative and successful at what they do to themselves and others to become reproductive. Secondly, the process and consequences of EI development contain some fundamentals believed to reduce individual and organizational stress. Lack of stress promotes relationships, which fosters stability and endurance. Further, Serrat (2017) argues that emotional intelligence has significant links with concepts of love and spirituality (331).
Theories on Emotional Intelligence
(a). Mayer and Salovey's EI Ability Model.
Salovey and Mayer's work has been the most influential in EI. They were the first researchers to print great books of EI in peer-reviewed psychological journals (Kewalramani, Agrawal, & Rastogi, 2015, p.178). The two conceptualised ability-based EI Model that was based on the effort of Gardner and his view on individual intelligence (Dhani & Sharma, 2016 p.193). Their structure entailed five dimensions: motivation, understanding one's feelings, handling one's emotions, self-motivation, and managing relations with others. They divided Emotional Intelligence into four branches (Dhani & Sharma, 2016, p.193). The first two branches represent the separate part of the information that is thought to be bonded in the emotion system. They tend to present some differences between the emotions felt by an individual. They convert the thinking process by directing attention to the relevant ideas. The fourth branch is integrated into individuals' plans. It reflects the ability of an individual to stay in both pleasant and unpleasant feelings. The third division contains the capacity to comprehend emotions and be able to handle it. The branch displays more of the ability to comprehend complex emotions and identify some transition between different emotions. An example of a transition is when one's emotions move from anger to shame or satisfaction. The four subsidiaries operate hierarchically with the idea that feelings act as the essential branch (Dhani, and Sharma, 2016 p.193)
(b). Daniel Goleman's Model (1998)
Daniel Goleman conducted his research in EI and penned "Emotional Intelligence" in the year 1995. The book familiarised both the community and private sectors with knowledge about emotional intelligence (Mishar & Bangun, 2014, p. 399). He defined EI as "abilities to be able to motivate an individual and survive in the face of frustrations by controlling impulse and delay gratification, managing one's moods and keeping distress from swamping the ability to think and to empathize and to hope" (Dhani & Sharma, 2016 p.193). According to Goleman, EI constitutes a cluster of skills that are focused on four social capabilities and self-awareness, management, and relationship. (Dhani & Sharma, 2006 p.193; Mishar, R. and Bangun, Y.R., 2014).
(c). Bar-On's EI Competencies Model
Bar-On characterizes EI as a plan of non-cognitive potential, skills, and capacities, which affects a person's skill to excel in managing eco-friendly requests and constraints (Kewalramani, Agrawal, & Rastogi, 2015 p.178; Dhani & Sharma, 20116 p.194). Bar-On believes that EI is a system of interconnected behaviours that arise from lousy competencies (Dhani & Sharma, 2016, p.194). Bar-On's outline consisted of five mechanisms of emotional intelligence. They included models such as self-perfection, social adaptability, stress management, and decision-making (Mishar and Bangun, 2014 p. 398). Difficulties in coping with one's situations are assumed by Bar-On to be especially prevalent among those persons lacking the subscales of realism in solving decisions, stress, and impulse regulator. Generally, Bar-On contemplates emotive intellect and intellectual intelligence to contribute similarly to an individual's overall knowledge, which offered a sign of one's possibility to prosper in life (Mishar & Bangun, 2014 p.398)
Emotional Intelligence Training and its Significance
Studies illustrate that emotional intelligence performs a vital character in an organization. Most organizations in recent years have based their selections on how aware the person before hiring them. Passionate intelligence workers display healthier skills in people-oriented services, including employment, sales, organization, and client service (Njoroge &Yazdanifard, 2014 p.33). EI training aims at shaping the effectiveness of staff focusing on staff and staff-client interactions. There are three parts that play a critical title role in the connection between staff and client conduct are EI, surviving styles, and qualified reactions. Trained staff members have improved the ratings on intrapersonal capacities, such as self-interest, independence, and expressive self-awareness (Zijlmans et al., 2015 p.607).
The importance of exercising on staff emotions yields expansively in self-assurance and relaxed emotional reactions. As argued by Zijlmans et al., 2015 p. 608, trained staff experience more constructive emotions at their workplaces than in workplaces where training is minimal. Practice leads to a high level of copying styles in task-oriented copying. Therefore, individuals can handle traumatic situations effectively by concentrating more on how to solve the problem (Zijlmans et al., 2015, p. 608).
Developing Emotional Intelligence Training
To help people enhance and reorganize their Emotional Intelligence capabilities, EI experts have established a series of EI programs. These plans begin with examining one's rational-emotional progressions, done with the aid of self-reporting accounts or through other procedures that help in self-mapping of emotional intelligence (Kunnanatt, 2004 p. 493). When the system is fully developed, EI is never an issue in organizations.
EI may be the most important thing missing in most workplaces, which is supposed to bond conventional ability determinants of career performance with dispositional factors (Serrat, 2017 p. 337). Most organizations now offer pieces of training whereby workers learn and develop their skills. The various trainings and acquaintance of such skills denotes "emotional intelligence" or "emotional competence" drill where the bosses generate and manage a working atmosphere of flexibility, accountability, values, rewards, simplicity, and commitment (Serrat, 2017 p. 337).
The organization should be organizing annual training on EI, for this will keep their employees on track. EI and social intelligence benefit existing groups in the office to comprehend and value each other in spite of their immense differences in perceptions and objectives. The two ideas assist executives in manipulating employees' interactions effectively (Serrat, 2017, p. 337). For us to develop EI faster and better, we have to observe ourselves and look into our actions from different perspectives. As an organization, frequent encounters with self-enhanced perception should be allowed as it creates humility and building of emotions. The first step towards greatness is to identify your emotions and follow the most beneficial steps that you decide. Leading people is not about how smart and strong you are; it is about how you handle pressure and connect emotions.
Dhani, P., and Sharma, T., 2016. Emotional intelligence; history, models, and measures. International Journal of Science Technology & Management, 5(7), pp.189-201.
Fiori, M., Antonietti, J.P., Mikolajczak, M., Luminet, O., Hansenne, M., and Rossier, J., 2014. What is the ability emotional intelligence test (MSCEIT) good for? An evaluation using item response theory. PLoS One, 9(6), p.e98827.
Kewalramani, S., Agrawal, M., and Rastogi, M.R., 2015. Models of emotional intelligence: Similarities and discrepancies. Indian Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(2), p.178.
Kunnanatt, J.T., 2004. Emotional intelligence: The new science of interpersonal effectiveness. human resource development quarterly, 15(4), p.489.
Mishar, R. and Bangun, Y.R., 2014. Create the EQ modelling instrument based on Goleman and Bar-on models and psychological defence mechanisms. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 115, pp.394-406.
Mortan, R.A., Ripoll, P., Carvalho, C. and Bernal, M.C., 2014. Effects of emotional intelligence on entrepreneurial intention and self-efficacy. Revista de Psicologia del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones, 30(3), pp.97-104.
Njoroge, C.N., and Yazdanifard, R., 2014. The impact of social and emotional intelligence on employee motivation in a multigenerational workplace. Global Journal of Management And Business Research.
Schutte, N.S., Malouff, J.M., and Thorsteinsson, E.B., 2013. Increasing emotional intelligence through training: Current status and future directions. International Journal of Emotional Education, 5(1), p.56.
Serrat, O., 2017. Understanding and developing emotional intelligence. In Knowledge solutions (pp. 329-339). Springer, Singapore.
Zijlmans, L.J.M., Embregts, P.J.C.M., Gerits, L., Bosman, A.M.T., and Derksen, J.J.L., 2015. The effectiveness of staff training focused on increasing emotional intelligence and improving the interaction between support staff and clients. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 59 (7), pp. 599-612.
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