Published: 2019-11-04 08:00:00
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Ways that one can use to make an improvement on their current financial situations is one of the most talked about topics in todays world. However, one trick that most people dont usually know is that the path to follow to ensure ones success is to make an expenditure of an amount less than that which one earns. As the gap between an individuals spending and the amount they make expands, the better position one is as far as managing fiscal stance is. Taking into consideration the elements of thought like accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, significance and fairness also play essential roles in helping one with the improving their financial situation. In this paper, I will undertake a study on the best ways of ensuring an improvement in the financial status of an individual using multiple perspectives in ensuring an improvement in the financial situation within a firm. So as to improve the financial status of a firm, a whole system approach is applicable by taking into consideration the links between systems and sub-systems, and subsequent solutions arrived at that are tailored to the identified problems.

Full systems approaches involve identifying the several components of a system and assessing how each and every one of them is related. Whole systems approaches are an important way of analysing organizational participation because; there should be a change in the organization at every level, from the top management to the front line staff if the employees want to achieve some meaningful participation. Participation should be taken as a daily routine. Participation involves operation at different levels since there are numerous ways of bringing everybody on board.

Multiple perspectives of organizational theory

The Organizational theory implies the study of the designs of organizations and their structures, how they relate to their external environment, and the behaviour of managers and technocrats within organizations (Crowther, & Green, 2004). Organizational theories are environmentally linked and are target oriented social entities which are specifically designed to coordinate systems activities. Organizational theory gives suggestions of the most appropriate way an organization can keep up with rapid change (Crowther& Green, 2004).

We will base our focus on technology. Technology has been a major factor that has created many positive changes as well as making a substantial impact in our every days lives. The advances in technology have drastically created the desire to integrate technology into our daily activities so as to function more efficiently and effectively (Moshal, 2010). Technology in organizations is also known as Information Technology, and they refer to machines, computerized systems, which boost communications, information gathering, and processing which has allowed us to get things done more easily and efficiently. Since the progression of the internet in the turn of the twenty-first century, there have been significant technological advances that have impacted our lives today (Moshal, 2010). Technology is being utilized in organizations as it reduces operations cost and also improves work performance.

There are four organizational theory perspectives, namely Modernist, Critical theorist, Symbolic Inter-preterits and Postmodernist. Critical theory based on the urgent need to analyze prompt corporate ideas and management practices. IT raises the awareness within the organizational members. It works to improve equality and democracy within the organization. In this report, we will discuss both the Modernist and Postmodernist views and perspectives about technology in our organizations.

Some scholars argue that Information Technology is the most pervasive technical innovation of the post-World War II era. It is postulated that IT will continue progressing and become more unified in society. This report aims to discuss the modernist and postmodernist perspectives towards the role of technology in organizations. Technology within organizations is the forms of computerized systems or machinery being put to use to enhance proper communication and in gathering and processing of information.

Modernism is the perspective through which persons, societies, and cultures ought to adopt so as to inculcate new conventions while discarding old views. This goes for just about anything in the society. Modernism has a base in on statistical methods used to discover the correspondences between the hypothesis and the real world. Modernists have different dimensions of understanding issues by being more objective and knowledge oriented backed by statistical figures driven at making new discoveries. Here there is a belief that people are conscious of their interests, and nobody can influence these interests. Modernized thinking has a tendency of focusing on rational thinking around an organized framework. The Modernist theory is majorly focused on finding the ultimate and accurate solution to problems at hand. Modernism is used to build a system of organizational environment for discovery and innovation hence help in creating an innovative organization. This is because of modernism lead to a particular social organization of innovation; it promotes departmental interaction and encourages rewards and incentive for taking risks.

Also, Postmodernist theories accept newly invented ideas since they rarely trust unproven truths. Postmodernism, despite its being difficult to define, it is a phenomenon that appears in a wide range of disciplines or study areas such as music, fashion, film, literature, sociology, etc. just to mention a few. Temporal or historical location is difficult as it is hard to determine when it began. It has an ontology that is not dependent on our knowledge. On the other hand, its epistemology is made through conceptualisation. Postmodernist has an engagement in a subjective ontology that enables understanding of reality to be influenced by the actors of society. Postmodern sees social factors as being part of the common reality and cannot be considered as separate entities. They believe in no single truth since there can be several forms of reality. They believe that society situations are chaotic and subjected to endless infinities, and these driving forces that make up society are ambiguous and tricky to comprehend. The postmodernist view is focused on the need for free expression since power can have limits on ones right to expression. It has a focus breaking down of barriers of superficial language and exploring motivations through discourse analysis. Postmodernism opposes the ideology by modernisms single view concerning science and people. It breaks the structures forming phenomena, and disclosing the frailty of beliefs that gave such fixed structure with skepticism.

Though stressing, harmful and counterproductive, postmodernism provides other ways of reasoning. It makes individuals probe organizational knowledge regarding issues pertaining knowledge application and expected organizational outcomes. Postmodernism has no reality attachments since it rejects the separation of truths and untruths. Though truth can only be known by investigation of issues that differentiates between opinion and belief.

Postmodernism also has no interest in social interaction but is just interested in the discourse and language that makes the outcome (Powell, & Owen, 2007).

Modernism and postmodernism have their few differences. These are due to their different views of the society. They include;

Modernists views technology as existent and that its now essential and ubiquitous in organizations. Since organizations are seen as a bureaucratic, hierarchical system, they use technology to fasten their operations, to operate better and with some fluency so as to achieve the goals of the organization (Clewell, 2013). Technology is viewed as a tool that helps provide some much needed intermediate support to management, communications, production, and manufacturing process and to fasten the flow of organizational operations through its departments. Technology acts as a link between processing inputs into outputs. Technology is vast and is viewed as different automatic types of equipment designed for different uses.

However, postmodernists have a contrary opinion that technology is simple and stagnant. Technology may be considered to be abstract when power conflict and societal issues come into play. It cannot be objective since its organizational existence is pegged to its creators and goals of the provider coupled with purpose, intention, and understanding of it.

Modernists view technology as that which helps provide enough information that can improve products and services. If companies use information technology, it can improve internal operations as well as bring up innovations that would intern let companies products stand out and have low manufacturing cost. Organizations use production technologies to cut down on the expenses of manufacturing strategically which increases profits (Clewell, 2013).

Postmodernists have the opinion that as much as technology may be seen to be subservient to workers. Since the very man created technology, technology can lead to overreliance on technology hence leading to limitations of the formation of new ideas and solutions. Instances that have seen robust embedding of technology into organizational procedures have resulted in top managements strategic importance disregarded. People have the tendency of being oblivious to different forms of solutions and view the only solution as innovating more efficient forms of technology to solve their problem. Technology has been accepted as a normal easy way of solving problems that most workers in organizations would take it as a usual way of having the work done and would simply apply it in future repeating events. People became more engulfed and fixed on the possible benefits of technology such that if technology breaks down, society will find it hard to cope with problem-solving without the use of technology as they revert to manual ways of solving and analyzing problems. It can be seen that though technology has the upper hand regarding control in the organizations, it manipulates our behaviour in a manner that is undetectable. This challenges the modernists perspective as it is not merely a tool for us to engage in, it is becoming a tool that is driving and changing human and social behaviour.

The modernist perspective also has a belief that technology can aid in management within organizations. Some IT software such as Decision Support Systems helps managerial decision making by gathering mass information and data through data mining and coding and predicting trends that will come to the best solution for managers to consider (Clewell, 2013). Such uses of IT help to save time and effort by sorting out files and information and retrieving them at a fast speed. Employees can source for information quickly and work process is short. This helps to facilitate the operations for managers and staff and enhances the structure and hierarchy in an organization.

However, postmodernists may claim that advanced surveillance and management technologies implemented in organizations are forms of modern day oppression. For example, performance tracking technologies in organizations create undue pressure on employees performance. This intrusive control over employees limits them to be flexible and natural as they are constantly fearful that their managers are always observing their working behaviour. For example, Amazon uses harsh surveillance technology to keep track of employees productiveness so as to ensure that they a...


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