|Type of paper:||Essay|
|Categories:||Development Social change Social issue Lifespan development|
Modernization and development have been conceptualized as pillars of change whereby a society experiences social, cultural, political and economic transformation. As such, a modern society refers to an industrialized society that has experienced social and structural changes that promote development. Therefore, the two terms are interlinked because there can be no development without modernization. With this note, modernization is viewed as a continuous process that is open-ended which originated from western societies (Knauft 66). In most cases, modernization and development have been used as tools to foster change in the underdeveloped nations. Even though the two aspects have been viewed as progressive, there are tradeoffs that offset the benefits of industrialized and developed societies. Modernization and development have led to new material and social strains that have threatened the growth and expansion that are core attributes that modern society is founded.
Modernization and development have been essentially conceptualized as the key factors that transform traditional societies into modern, urbanized, educated, industrialized, politically, socially and economically uplifted. It is argued that modernization and development are the solutions to the problems that by far out-do the competence of traditional societies. Modernization theory argues that modern societies experience improved production, better education, and welfare for the needy. Furthermore, modernization and development are used as tools to achieve globalization. Globalization has brought societies together through the exchange of technologies, goods, and services which are central for societies to achieve economic growth.
Modernization and development projects face various problems during the implementation phase. In most cases, these projects are undertaken in challenging environments where future uncertainties increase risks. Furthermore, people tasked with implementing modernization and development projects face complex economic, political and social factors that affect the successful completion of the development tasks. For instance, some of the projects are implemented in very remote areas in the world leading to increased security threats and personal risks to staff. Besides, poor infrastructure, changing the environment and limited resources affect the timely delivery of the project. Generally, social, economic, political and the natural environment are the major challenges that change the course or plan of modernization projects. However, problems such as poor project planning lead to the delay and even cancellation of the project especially in cases of unrealistic plans. In addition, the lack of accountability, corruption, and embezzlement of funds causes major upheavals leading to unsuccessful modernization and development projects.
On the other hand, modernization and development projects have failed to improve the livelihood of people, failing to achieve their core objectives. According to Bodley, societies pay a hefty price for progress. Marginalized and underdeveloped tribal societies pay a significant price for modernization and development. They sacrifice their tradition and culture to obtain the benefits of progress (Bodley 1). Economic development as a result of modernization has resulted in an increase in diseases. The development makes people vulnerable to diseases that may be associated with changes in lifestyle and dietary practices. In Micronesia, development has progressed rapidly leading to increased rates of obesity, mental disorders, and heart disease (Bodley 2). Diseases diminish the likelihood of improved living standards due to costly medical expenses. Similarly, modernization is associated with the increased disparity between developed and underdeveloped nations. Furthermore, societies experience increased income and wealth disparity as well.
In conclusion, modernization and development are conceptualized as instruments of progress by channeling economic, social, political, and cultural transformation. However, modernization and development have failed to achieve the end goal. Development projects are mishandled and even abandoned upon implementation. However, the biggest challenge is that people have a price to pay to modernization. They suffer from diseases, widespread poverty, political instability, marginalization, discrimination, and lost traditions.
Bodley, John. The Price of Progress. Pp. 1-6. http://meissinger.com/uploads/3/4/9/1/34919185/bodley_1990_the_price_of_progress.pdf
Knauft, Bruce M. The Gebusi: Lives Transformed in a Rainforest World. Waveland Press, Inc., 2015.
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