|Categories:||Education Human development Developmental psychology|
Freud's Psychosexual Theory
Was the first to stress the influence of the early parentchild relationship on development. (correct)
Was eventually criticized because it underemphasized the influence of sexual feelings in development.
Applied in all cultures.
Ignored personality development.
Unlike Freud, Erik Erikson
Primarily focused on the importance of early life experiences.
Viewed children as taking a more active role in their own development.
Minimized the role of culture in individual development.
Pointed out that normal development must be understood in relation to each cultures life situation. (correct)
A special strength of the psychoanalytic perspective is
its emphasis on understanding the individuals unique life history.(correct)
The clarity of the concept of ego functioning.
The ease of empirically testing its ideas.
Its use of a wide variety of research methods.
In every science, research is usually based on a __________, a prediction about behavior drawn from a __________.
theory; hypothesis (correct)
research design; theory
research method; hypothesis
How many important life events that form the building blocks of individual identity does Erickson's theory of psychosocial development outline?
How does Erikson refer to the question :"Who Am I?"
As an identity search
As coming of age
As a developmental crisis (correct)
As social awareness
When does mistrust occur in an infant?
When the caretaker forgets to play peek-a-boo with infant.
When basic care challenges the comfort level of the infant. (correct)
When the caretaker watches television instead of holding the infant.
When the infant is fed at inconsistent times each day.
In the example: "A child begins to take control of his/her toileting needs," what stage of Erickson's psychosocial development is represented?
Identify versus role confusion
Trust versus mistrust
Initiative versus guilt
Autonomy versus shame and doubt (correct)
What is the stage of Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory in which children love to initiate activities and are constantly moving from one task to another?
Initiative versus guilt (correct)
Identity versus role confusion
Generativity versus stagnation
Industry versus inferiority
In what stage of psychosocial development does success becomes more important as students attempt to receive favorable grades and often use the performance of other students to assess their own?
Identity versus role confusion
Ego integrity versus despair
Industry versus inferiority (correct)
Generativity versus stagnation
Erikson held the belief that it is important for young adults to establish an identity in certain areas. Without successful identity formation in these areas, Erikson reported that young adults were likely to experience role confusion. Which of the following is NOT an area that Erikson reported is necessary for successful identity formation?
What is the idea that the individual is actively experimenting with different lifestyles and ways of being in the world called?
John is following his father's footsteps to become a Baptist minister and is presently about to graduate from the Baptist seminary that his father also attended. John is also registered as a Republican, just like his parents, and is planning on buying a house across his the street from his parents. The process whereby an individual, like John, has established his identity and readily commits to a particular way of life without exploring other options is called identity _____.
The inability to obtain successful intimacy leads to ____ and loss in ____.
separation; life quality
depression; self-esteem (correct)
role identity; relationships
One of the last personal crises with which we struggle is the acceptance of impending death and the fact that our lives are primarily historical, rather than in the future. What is this stage of Erikson's psychosocial development called?
Generativity versus stagnation
Intimacy versus isolation
Integrity versus despair (correct)
Intimacy versus isolation
The lifelong search for who we are is influenced by our caretaker(s), home environment, and community from which we are raised.
In order for children to have successful resolution of the autonomy versus doubt crisis, they would have to learn how to wait when making multiple requests for new activities, instead of becoming upset.
Discuss and identify the eight stages of Erikson's Psychosocial Development.
The first development stage as outlined by Erikson is the trust versus mistrust. It is considered as th infancy stage for the ages between zero and one and a half years. The childs uncertsinties of the new world is to be resolved by the caregiver and the consistency of the care provided.
The second stage is the autonomy versus shame and doubt and it falls between the ages of eighteen months and three years. Walking and playing with other items is the beginning of indpendence in this stage. Additionally, the child realizes his or her new set of skills and abilities and it is important to allow them to explore all their possibilities.
Initiative versus guilt is the third developmental stage and it involves children between age three and five. The child more lively and the stage is usually a time of vigour of action and such behaviors that are as aggressive by the parents.
Industry versus inferiority is the fourth developmental stage and it involves children between the ages of five and twelve and the child begins to learn to read and write with the help of teachers. The child becomes industrious and couragious and their peers become influential in their lives.
The stage is the identity versus role confusion which is between the ages of twelve and eighteen years. It is the adolescence stage which marks the transition into adulthood. The child become more independent of their parents and learn the roles that awaits them in the adulthood stage.
Intimacy versus isolation is the sixth development stage and is between the ages of 18 to 40 years. An individual begins to share themselves with others in an intimate relationship. Comfortable relationships arise from a successful completion of the stage and it leads to upholding the virtue of love.
The seventh developmental stage is generativity versus stagnation stage which is for persons between the age of 40 and 65 years. The stage is characterized by established careers and settling down into families.
The eigth stage is the ego integrity versus despair and includes individuals within age of 65 years and beyond. Degeneration of the productivity of an individual is a common feature of this stage.
According to Erikson, what can parents and other caregivers do to help children develop a sense of trust during the Trust Vs. Mistrust stage?
Children expect a lot from their caregivers during this stage there are a lot of uncertainties in their minds about the new world. The only way to give them hope is to ensure consistency in the care provided towards them and being available to be looked up to or be role models.
According to Erikson, what can parents and other caregivers do to help children develop healthy autonomy during the Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt stage?
It is such an important stage of new discoveries and the parents are to allow the kids to explore all their options on skills and abilities within an encouraging environment and support.
What is Mindfulness?
Mindfulness is the ability to pay interest, non-judgmentally, to the prevailing moment. Mindfulness is about dwelling in the second, experiencing one's thoughts, emotions, and senses completely, but with attitude and discernment. Its miles taken into consideration a foundation for the alternative capabilities taught as it enables us receive and tolerate the powerful feelings we may experience in the midst of difficult and upsetting conditions. With the usage of mindfulness, strain generating behavior may be solidly replaced with pressure relieving behavior.
What is the Reason/Rational Mind?
The main features of the rational mind are the facts and the common sense and it is the state of mind that defines reality in a linear cause and effect with a logical and rational thinking. It is also associated with calmness and clarity.
What is the Emotional mind?
Emotional mind is the exact opposite of the reasonable or rational mind. It often operate on feelings that an individual possess in their inner being. However, emotional mind can cloud the judgment of an individual inhibiting sound judgment of any given situation.
What is the Wise Mind?
The active integration of the emotional mind and the reasonable mind is known as the wise mind. The emotional mind is always sensitive while the reasonable mind is logical. The wise mind mediates between the two sections of the mind and bring their reasoning into a calm state to enable a person to a sound judgment out of a situation.
___________ is to assists individuals with reducing their vulnerability to an emotional state of mind and to increase positive emptions.
Emotional Regulation (correct)
Pick the correct order of the stages in development.
Repression, denial, projection, isolation, regression
Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital (correct)
Latency, oral, denial, anal, genital
Birth, child, adult, die
Phallic, oral, latency, genital, anal
After watching the movie Happy what passages in particular resonated with you? Which struck youpersonallyas most profound or meaningful for your own life?
The theory that has had the greatest impact on the field of psychology was developed by _________Sigmund Freud_________.
Which theorist believed that birth order played a critical role in our personal development?
Based on your opinion, why do we need to study the development of the self?
Understanding of oneself or that of other is an important aspect of study. For a psychologist it has proven beneficial in the process of offering the different therapies to their patients.
According to Sigmund Freud's personality is composed of three elements. These three elements of personality are known as the
________Id______, _____Ego________, and _______Superego________.
Describe these three elements of personality in detail.
According to Freud, Id operates on the unconscious level based on the pleasure principles and majorly deals with instincts. It is mainly composed of the Eros and the Thanatos. The Eros are stronger than the Thanatos thereby creating the balance in human reactions.
Further, Freud stated that the ego develops from Id during the infancy stage. The ego aims at satisfying the goals of the Id in a social and more acceptable way. It functions both at the conscious and unconscious mind and operates on the basis of reality.
The superego develops during the early childhood stages and is responsible for the moral standards and behaviors. It operates on the morality and enables a person to behave in a socially accepted manner.
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