The Birthmark by Nathaniel Hawthorne, Free Essay Example

Published: 2022-02-21 03:20:16
The Birthmark by Nathaniel Hawthorne, Free Essay Example
Type of paper:  Annotated bibliography
Categories: Nathaniel Hawthorne
Pages: 5
Wordcount: 1121 words
10 min read
143 views

Part 1

According to Hawthorne, the representation of life is characterized by having an imperfection, and when losing the imperfection, it leads to loss of life. This belief is displayed in the short story "The Birthmark" which talks about a scientist called Aylmer who is embarrassed by the tiny birthmark of his wife. This was located on her left cheek and in the process of removing it he kills her because he was trying to beat nature using science. This research proves that science destroys nature (life).

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Part 2

Crews, Frederick. The sins of the fathers: Hawthorne's psychological themes. Univ of California Press, 1989.

This publication is about the specific form of idealism which was possessed, Aylmer. It also exploits the impacts of his secret motives and activities. According to the author of the author, Aylmer has a perfection idealism. This formed the basis for him to conduct secret motives of trying to conduct tests on his wife. The author notes that Aylmer performs the scientific experiments on his wife with a reason for trying to make her an ideal woman by changing her identity. Change of identity results in adverse impacts to individuals and the society.

The article is helpful in my research because it proves my thesis in different ways. The central concept from this publication that supports my thesis is the perfection of idealism. This is because it motivates Aylmer to conduct his evil secret motives to his wife. I will use this element to show that nature through science leads to the destruction of life through an identity change. This article shares the same concept of the idealism of women by men through science. They have the same conclusion as the first publication.

Fetterley, Judith. "Women Beware Science:'The Birthmark.'." Details: Critical Essays on Hawthorne's Short Stories. Boston, Mass.: GK Hall & Co., 1991. (1991).

This article criticizes and analyses the story "The Birthmark" based on a feminist perspective. It argues that the story is exploiting the sources of compulsion of men to idealize women which is science. The author believes that Hawthorne was writing a story about the sickness of men. According to Fetterley, this comes from trying to show their power through science. The author also states that this story is not about the imperfect and flawed nature of women. Men have put all their focus on this sickness on science which has led them to change the identity of the women in marriages and relationships.

This article help to prove my thesis because it believes that science in the society destroys marriages and relationships. This is because it has made men in relationship to use it as a source of idealizing women. The author believes that every person has imperfection including men, but men use their power of science to try to make women perfect. I will use that element in my research. In the end, it leads to changes in identity and destruction of marriages. This publication has similar sentiments with the next article on sources of men's compulsion to idealize women in the society. However, it disagrees with the rest of the article because it only focuses on the feminist approach.

Matthiessen, F. O. "American Renaissance (New York, 1941)." and 152 (1955): 194.

This article applauds perfection in the society because it forms part of the American Renaissance. According to Matthiessen, science plays a significant role in the Renaissance period because it is a form of innovativeness. However, perfection is the most critical part during this time. This is because it helps to increase productivity and the ability of people to be inventive.

The publication forms part of my thesis but does not support it instead it disagrees with it. When compare to the other two articles, they only agree on the part of perfection being a component of science and nature. However, it disagrees on the importance of perfection since it explains that it is helpful in the society. Therefore, it justifies the activity perfection being done by Aylmer. I will use this part to show that perfection and science only support the renaissance and do not guarantee to improve the life of a person. It does not reach the same conclusion as the other articles used.

Rosenberg, Liz. "" The best that earth could offer":" The Birth-mark," a newlywed's story." Studies in short fiction 30.2 (1993): 145.

According to the author of this article, the earth cannot offer everything that a human being needs. In this article claims that because the earth cannot provide everything that human beings want in life people have turned to science to seek satisfaction in their life need. For example, the earth does not give perfection to men. The author provides an example of Aylmer and his wife. He conducted a scientific experiment on her to make her an ideal woman. This has resulted in both benefits and negatives.

In proving my thesis this article is helpful because it highlights the reasons why men engage in science activities. It also proves the thesis based on the consequences of such events in the human lives. For example, it destroys marriages because men conduct science on their women to help in the perfection process. This article agrees with the first two article on science as a source of evil in the society. It also agrees on the adverse impacts of science that men conduct. It coincides with the third article on the benefits of science in increasing innovativeness.

Part 3

My research is not fully developed because I still have some questions. For instance, does perfection to an individual or the society. Also, what if there are ways of making the perfection right by trying to eliminate the negatives? For example, if in the story "The Birthmark" if Aylmer could have the scientifically proven contortion to remove the birthmark. One of thing that has surprised me is why a man would want to remove a birthmark yet he saw it before marrying the lady. I would want to find sources that explain the concept of perfection based on the holistic approach rather than individual perspective.

Works Cited

Crews, Frederick. The sins of the fathers: Hawthorne's psychological themes. Univ of California Press, 1989.

Eckstein, Barbara. "Hawthorne's 'The Birthmark': Science and Romance as Belief." Studies in short fiction 26.4 (1989): 511-519.

Fetterley, Judith. "Women Beware Science:'The Birthmark.'." Details: Critical Essays on Hawthorne's Short Stories. Boston, Mass.: GK Hall & Co., 1991. (1991).

Matthiessen, F. O. "American Renaissance (New York, 1941)." and 152 (1955): 194.

Rosenberg, Liz. "" The best that earth could offer":" The Birth-mark," a newlywed's story." Studies in short fiction 30.2 (1993): 145.

Zanger, Jules. "Speaking of the Unspeakable: Hawthorne's" The Birthmark"." Modern Philology 80.4 (1983): 364-371.

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