|Type of paper:||Course work|
|Categories:||Psychology Human behavior Emotional intelligence|
The biological domain is one of the five psychology domains, and it is commonly referred to as biopsychology. It involves the study of how the physical world of a person interacts and integrates with the mental world. In other words, it studies the function of neurotransmitters to understand the influence of the physical body on human behavior and emotions. Some of the concepts involved in this domain include sensation, consciousness, and neuroscience (Pinel,2009). Furthermore, according to expert's biological domain involves studying four bran lobes and their psychological functions. One lobe is the frontal lobe that controls motor skills, expressive language, and higher-level cognition. Another lobe is occipital, which interprets information and visual stimuli (Kollner et al.,2019). Another one is the parietal lobe, which is the brain's part that processes tactile sensory information like touch, pain, pressure, among other functions. The final one is the temporal lobe that interprets sounds, language, and processing memory.
According to Kristal (2009), the maternal behavior expressed by non- human mammals is an indication of the connection between the physical body and human beings' psychology. The findings of this particular research indicated that there are internal and external factors that influence maternal behavior. The hormones produced immediately after delivery triggers the brain organisms to cause the non-human mammal to express caretaking behaviors. The theoretical evidence in the article makes it reliable, and it has been confirmed by other researchers hence its validity.
According to Parish and Hahn (2016), there is a strong connection between Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) with distress and aging among women. In other words, the behavior of women having a low desire for sex is triggered by dissatisfaction from a partner that leads to distress. Also, aging among women leads to reduced sexual desires. For instance, 8.9% of women have HSDD and are of ages 18- 44, while 12.3%of women aged between 45 and 64 also have the condition (Parish &Hahn 2016). HSDD is a condition likely to be treated through the therapeutic session; however, the victims have a shy behavior towards psychologists regarding the health issue.
Neuroscience is part of biopsychology that enhances explanations of cognitive behavior. Both the psychology trainees and laypeople prefer psychological explanations with some sense of neuroscience information and are presented scientifically (Weygandt, Oster, Gudmundsdottir & Rinaldi-Young, 2019). The neuroscience information might be irrelevant, but since it is present, it strengthens the content. The research also shows that biological factors cognition and its effects influence the human mental behavior like drug addiction, plasticity, and the production of hormones. All these triggers the functions of the body.
Biopsychology is a good domain used for explaining human appetite. Human appetite is influenced by the body's ability to regulate chemical products and reactions (Casanova, Finlayson, Blundell & Hopkins, 2019). The results indicate the desire to eat is dependent on metabolic activities present in the body. Homeostatic control has the inhibitory control of when and what amount of food to be consumed. There is a strong relationship between the human brain and appetite, as well as the restrictions and storage of energy.
The cognitive domain is the domain that enables human beings to understand the various complex social rules and expectations hence influencing human behavior. According to Killen, M., Smetana, J. G., and Smetana, J. (2006), social and moral development results in different children's behavior. This is because it influences children's understanding, interpretation, as well as the rejection of different happenings in society. In other words, the cognitive ability of children is largely dependent on their social environment. These results were obtained after a study of cognition ability of children aged between 1-3 years (Killen, Smetana & Smetana,2006).
The foundation of cognitive ability has knowledge and information. Therefore, the knowledge presented in factual form is a building block for other complexes of academic and normal life (Huitt,2004). In other words, abstraction is at its low level when in factual knowledge. It is the responsibility of teachers to understand cognitive domain taxonomy to teach children effectively. Knowledge is the most basic element, followed by comprehension. After a learner is able to comprehend information, the learner applies it to different situations and makes analysis (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2016). The final stages of taxonomy are synthesis and evaluation of the processed information.
Cognitive psychology plays a vital role in the development of designs in different fields, including engineering. Research has proved that to arrive at creative design process integration between the cognitive, creative process and engineering design process must take place (Howard, Culley & Dekoninck, 2008). Designs are a product of the creative psychology outputs and proposed design types in engineering. This means that the higher the cognitive ability of a person, the more the individual is likely to create unique and attractive engineering designs. This conclusion was arrived by researchers who decided to study the cognition ability of engineering students.
Cognitive theories offer good explanations for the learning behavior of learners at different study levels. Applications of the cognitive theories in different education conceptualizations have resulted in the research and development of new education models. Therefore, a cognitive learning model leads to growing the learner's understanding of knowledge presented at different levels of academic life (Smetana,2017). At the same time, students' cognition is influenced by learner's and teacher's activities as well as the teacher's knowledge and learner characteristics (Di Vesta, 2017). Therefore, one cannot argue to understand the cognition of learners without establishing the connection of the above features, as explained in the research.
The development domain explains the psychological changes due to the development of a person. It involves the study of learning and conditioning, language, and life span development. According to Simonton (2019), academic psychology is meant to promote talent development among learners. Furthermore, understanding profile development leas understanding the different personalities of persons. Culture is also external factors that promote the development of one's personality and cognitive behavior (Von Soest, Wichstrom, & Kvalem, 2016). However, it is essential to note that development is very systematic.
The development of od spatial language is evidence of the psychological growth of human beings. Starr & Srinivasan (2018) study findings were that the familiarity to metaphorical uses of spatial stimuli and pitch is effective through the application of cross-domain mappings. This skill improves among children than adults, especially when the cross-domain mappings are labeled for easy recognition (Traff, Olsson, Skagerlund & Ostergren,2019). This study was performed on children aged 3 to 6 years as well as adults who served as a control experiment (Starr & Srinivasan,2018). This is the technique that is also used in the development of music language (Hargreaves & Lamont, 2017). Growth of speech and pronunciation is psychological and develops as the psychology of a person grows. The growth of boys to men and girls to men also triggers behavior development, perceptions, and cognition.
Social and Personality
Forgiveness and Justice is a new aspect of the social and personality domains of psychology. Forgiveness and repentance are essential elements of the society that contributes to the different behaviors at the society level (Exline, Worthington Jr, Hill & McCullough,2003). the research also expresses that forgiveness results in the five personalities and which makes the interactions among human beings different. Also, the justice systems present at the social level are reviewed to understand how they contribute to the different social characteristics (Freedman & Flanagan,2017). It is also important to note that forgiveness and justice and other social elements affect other psychological domains. In other words, multilevel modeling is a good technique that explains this connection (Nezlek,2008).
Political diversity is also another aspect of social and personality psychology. Political diversity exists, and its therefore responsible for the conservatism present among the psychologists. According to Inbar and Lammers (2012) study, 6% of psychologists have openly declared that they are conservatives. Conservative psychologists risk discrimination because they choose to keep their opinions on foreign policy and economic issues. This study involved 800 psychologists, and the conclusion was that liberal-minded psychologists are discriminated more than the open conservative psychologists (Inbar &Lammers,2012).
Invalidity exists in the metrics used to determine the various measures of social and personality psychology. Often there are underreported issues that bring about validity in this psychology domain. According to Hussey and Hughes (2018) study, a wide range of self-report measures have both high and low levels of good valid. For instance, several measures show that they have 89% good validity when assessed based on internal consistency. The other has a good valid of these measures drops to 4% when evaluated on a comprehensive basis (Hussey & Hughes,2018). There is a need for further study on the structural validity of social and personality psychology.
Casanova, N., Finlayson, G., Blundell, J. E., & Hopkins, M. (2019). Biopsychology of human appetite-understanding the excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms of homeostatic control. Current Opinion in Physiology, 12, 33-38.
Di Vesta, F. J. (2017). Applications of cognitive psychology to education. In The future of educational psychology (pp. 37-73). Routledge. 10.4324/9781315201016-4
Dornyei, Z. (2019). Psychology and language learning: The past, the present, and the future. Journal for the Psychology of Language Learning, 1(1), 27-41. ISSN: 2642-7001
Exline, J. J., Worthington Jr, E. L., Hill, P., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Forgiveness and justice: A research agenda for social and personality psychology. Personality and social psychology Review, 7(4), 337-348. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327957PSPR0704_06
Freedman, G., & Flanagan, M. (2017). From dictators to avatars: Furthering social and personality psychology through game methods. Social and personality psychology compass, 11(12), e12368. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12368
Hargreaves, D., & Lamont, A. (2017). The psychology of musical development. Cambridge University Press.
Howard, T. J., Culley, S. J., & Dekoninck, E. (2008). Describing the creative design process by the integration of engineering design and cognitive psychology literature. Design studies, 29(2), 160-180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.destud.2008.01.001
Huitt, W. (2004). Bloom et al.'s taxonomy of the cognitive domain. Educational psychology interactive, 22. https://gestaltdialektik.com/content/Factual_Knowledge_in_Vygotskyan_Terms.pdfHussey, I., & Hughes, S. (2018)
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