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The American Civil Liberties Union was founded in the year 1920 during the period of "Red Scare." This was period when American Attorney General, Mitchell Palmer tried to command the deportation and the detention of immigrants. The immigrants were supposed to get deported and detained due to their varying political views ("10. The American Civil Liberties Union" 14). The ACLU, therefore, fought against palmer's campaign of persecution as well as deportation. The fight against political immigrants which had started in 1920, gained a lot of support after 11th September. It was the same year when the government went ahead to introduce a discriminatory measure referred as individual registration. Ideally, the aim of the program was directed towards young men of 25 years and above who were mainly Muslim and from Arab Nations. The young men were supposed to report to the immigration offices where they would be photographed, fingerprinted and cross-examined. Among other areas that American Civil Liberties union focused on includes; civil rights, gender, race, and issues associated with America.
The command from Palmer led to arrest and detainment of many people who were suspected to be of different political views and opinion from that of the United States government. The police used to arrest them without warrants and imprisoned them for an extended period without official charges. The American Civil Liberties Union, therefore, could not accept that and hence publicized and documented the unlawful actions of the government, thus securing the release of some pacifist activists. The American Civil Liberties Union also planned for an expansion program that would focus on police brutality led by one of the activists called Baldwin ("19. Civil Liberties during World War II" 25). The program, therefore, helped in fighting police brutality and censorship thus giving individuals freedom. Since the blacks were treated differently from whites, American Civil Liberties union movement demonstrated that separate although equal laws governing the Southern prejudice were out of order.
Before the formation of ACLU, U.S Supreme Court did not uphold a single liberated speech claim as stated in the First Amendment. In fact, civil rights advocates were jailed any time they attempted to distribute anti-war literature. Besides, the minorities were always suspected due to political radicalism. There were still no rights for lesbians, gays, the poor as well as several other groups living in America. Segregation was part of the society until American Civil Liberties Union was founded. The members of those groups and citizens of the nation suffered injustice because they had no civil rights and liberty. Roger Baldwin, Crystal Eastman, Albert Da Silver and others decided to create a change by establishing American Civil Liberties Union. They then worked in a critical field which included conscience, freedom of expression and association. The organization is a nonpartisan, nonprofit and public interest that was dedicated significantly towards protecting civil liberties and human rights of all individuals and extending such privileges to all.
The other focus of American Civil Liberties Union in 1920 was based on freedom of expression wholly as well as speech in the labor association. Since most of its efforts were linked to labor group, The ACLU itself emerged to fight their enemy groups such Industrial Defense Association, National Civic Federation, Allied Patriotic Societies as well as American Legion. Also, American Civil Liberties Union led some efforts in non-labor fields such as promoting free talk in all public schools. During that period, American Civil Liberties union itself had prohibited giving of speeches within New York public institutions. The American Civil Liberties Union, therefore, worked with NAACP to support racial discrimination matters in court. They protected free speech despite the advocation of views and judgments. On the other hand, the communist party in united states was oppressed and harassed at all times by the officials in the government thus, leading it to the primary customer of ACLU. In fact, American Civil Liberties Union seemed to focus much on engaging themselves in unethical behaviors. As a result, the relationship between the communists and ACLU was restrained.
The American Civil Liberties Union also took a big part in passing Norris-La Guardia Act in 1932. This is the federal law that restricted the employers from stopping employees who needed to join unions. The bill also prevented the act of banning strikes, labor organizing deeds and unions using injunctions. Besides, the American Civil Liberties Union initiated a global attempt towards reducing the misconduct, for instance, coming up with fake confessions in police sections ("About the ACLU"). The movement published Lawlessness in Law Enforcement report in 1931 which was under the sponsorship of Hoover Herbert's Commission. In the year 1934, the organization made an effort of lobbying for an entrance of the (IRA) Indian Reorganization Act. The law helped in restoring some autonomy to tribes of Native Americans. As a result, they also established penalties whoever kidnapped the children of Native Americans.
The ACLU decided to further particular factors about liberties while affecting the judgments of some legal cases presented in courts. Since its origin, the organization always initiated test cases and intervened in some instances that were readily filed in courts. As a result, it may have directly provided legal guidance in an individual case. It also commented on matters related to civil liberties in a situation through filling an ally of the court. One of the most American Civil Liberties union remembered trial case was that of Scopes trial in 1925.American Civil Liberties Union supported the verdict of John T. Scopes, Tennessee science tutor, to disobey a Tennessee law unwelcoming the teaching of Darwin Charles evolution theory. The organization was active in changing censorship laws. It did the overturning through test cases, consequential from the planned acquisition of prohibited materials as well as resulting trial and test. The American Civil Liberties Union did not emerge victorious all-time in the cases; however, the airing of such challenges to people resulted in victory on appeal. Due to its fights against censorship, such books for instance 'James Joyce's Ulysses' was then allowed to be imported in America. The American Civil Liberties Union offered defense counsel in the Scottsboro test case that took place in 1931 to 1935 and secondly in Sacco-Vanzetti case that happened in 1921.The most striking American Civil Liberties union freedom of religion cases was about the defense during the 1930s concerning Jehovah's Witnesses who did not accept, on conscience grounds, to let their kids salute the flag into their classrooms ("About the ACLU"). In the year 1950s and '60s, American Civil Liberties union movement handled test cases in court questioning the constitutionality of allegiance as well as the blacklisting of believed left-wing subversives. It has well intervened in decisions made by Supreme Court. The court had banned prayers in all public schools settling that the act violated the constitutional principle of the state and the church. The ACLU, therefore, stood up saying that the children had the rights to pray in schools.
Another striking moment in the history of American Civil Liberties Union took place in 1978.During this time, ACLU organization protected Nazi group that needed to march all over the Chicago suburb, Illinois, whereby some Holocaust victims resided ("19. Civil Liberties During World War II" 29). The American Civil Liberties Union, therefore, influenced a federal court to make three orders that would place considerable limitations on the right to protest and express their thoughts. American Civil Liberties Union explained that constitutional rights should apply to all groups including the unpopular ones. In fact, many people believed that it was the essential hour for the emergence of American Civil Liberties Union. The organization committed to the law in the most challenging situations since it was founded. Since the happening of the most tragic Nazi attack, American Civil Liberties Union still worked without tire where it opposed policies to sacrifice people's fundamental freedoms on behalf of national the defense. The movement also restored essential liberties lost due to policies that expanded the power of government to invade peoples' privacy, punish dissent as well as imprisonment of individuals without due process of the law.
With World War II, the drift of racial prejudice led to the disillusionment of the immigrants. Termed as the dishonorable act the government persuasively forced the movement of 120,000 Japanese plummets from their residence to internment camps. From the report, 66% of those in internship were American natives. The partners from the Northern California in the union bravely spearheaded the fight together with ACLU for the benefit of the natives through supporting the two leading cases in court (WE THE PEOPLE). Despite losing the case, it was termed as just until the year 1990 when review installments of $20,000 alongside letters of the statement of regret marked by the primary President Bush were exhibited to around sixty thousand internee survivors.
About fifty years ago, the American Civil Liberties Union played a significant role in bringing about the integration of schools as well as the creation of a more just society. It was through the Brown v. Board of Education case that the court, under the influence of the American Civil Liberties Union acting as friends-of-the-court, declared that 'separate but equal' doctrine in the field of public education had no place. Immediately, this ruling halted many of the bigot practices of other states that were in permissive or mandatory segregation in public schools funded by the state at the moment. This led to the improvement of the nation as a whole which consequently changed the Africa Americans lives as they were now able to access quality education and city cooperation, leading to the dark age of working class ("About the ACLU"). The ruling made the U.S an encouraging sign to the lost hope of the world as it proved that through the administration of law human rights abuse and race-based standing system would crumble.
Aside from the issue of school incorporation, the American Civil Liberties Union also battled for equality in education among all ethnicities, bringing cases such as the Williams vs. California that guaranteed that the minority schools that served the disadvantaged kids would have the assets needed for provision of adequate education. In additional, ACLU took an interest in the Michigan governmental policy regarding minorities in society, which insisted that the racial consideration be an element in school admissions. ACLU also set out noteworthy racial equity crusades, documenting claims, distributing writings, holding workshops. It also got included in the groups that had an end goal of educating the general population about all types of racial profiling, from "Driving While Black or Brown" to the administration's harsh treatment of Muslims and other Asia.
In 1961 Warren collectively upheld the determination policy that oppressed ladies because "ladies are at the focal point of home and family life" following the constitution. This ruling showed the perception reflected by opposing forces to the society. However, the court did not highlight point of understanding on how the values impeded the correspondence for ladies as stipulated in the constitution. Ten years later a newly established American Civil Liberties Union together with women human rights took the case of Reed to the Supreme C...
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