Evolution biology refers to the change in species' characteristics over several generations. This process relies on natural selection, and the theory that it is based on is that species have similar characteristics and they change slowly over time. For evolution to take place, there must be a change in the genetic composition of a specific population. This affects the phenotype of the specific species, and some of the resulting characteristics may be advantageous to the organism and hence can be passed to the offspring. Different journals have been written to explain this gradual change in organisms that lead to either an advantage that can be passed to the next generations or a disadvantage.
Behavior is a contributing factor in evolution, but the idea has been faced with up and downs over the past few centuries (Uller). Lamarck and Darwin guarded this view, but it was faced with objection from the Weismann's mutation theory. This theory suggests that evolution of species occurs through sudden alterations in the characteristics of a species that are not expected. The theory joined two traditional evolution thoughts that seemed to present contrary views. One of these theories was Saltationist theory which suggests that new species of a particular organism are produced through a rapid process through transformations that are not continuous.
This theory was contradictory to the Darwin theory which holds the view that species evolve gradually through variations (Uller). Darwin theory is distinct from the Saltationist theory. He did not agree that there existed the development of traits that were undesirable to the species. The mutations theory tend to strongly emphasize that all the changes in the species are beneficial and that no trait is not desirable. One of the advantages of variation in the species is helping it to survive in a varying environment. Evolution occurs through natural selection as per the theory of Charles Darwin. Individuals have distinct characteristics which occur through a natural process.
Behavioral Ecology is the study of the evolution of living organisms due to ecological pressures that make the animals change to be able to survive in a particular environment. The environments keep on changing; therefore the living organisms are forced to evaluate to suit the changes occurring on the environment. Organisms have traits that enable them to live in that environment, and other organisms face challenges living in the same environment because they don't have the necessary traits to live in that environment. The article examines the evolution that has to occur in organisms for them to be able to live in new environments.
The behavior of animals can ultimately be predicted depending on the environment that the organisms are found because the environment makes the organisms to have similar traits to survive under the conditions that the environment provides. Scientists de the predictions of the behavior of the organisms based on the environment and ecological factors that exist within a particular environment (Zollner). The behavioral ecology is trying to study living organisms to come up with solutions on how you can make the organisms fit on the environment better and fix the challenges that they might be facing. Research is also being done on how organisms can be made to live in the environments that they are not used to.
The environment has complex structures that need to be analyzed before one can understand the ecological needs that make an animal be able to survive in a certain environment. The animals try to adapt to environments, and this is done through an evolution of the organism to adapt to the environment (Zollner). The organisms' evolution depending on the environment that the animal is living on. As the environment keeps on changing, the organisms living in that environment also changes to adapt to the changes and fit the environment. Where the organism is unable to change depending on the changes in the environment, then the animal dies because of challenges that the animal faces to survive. The evolution of the animal occurs as the animal tries to go through the various challenges that go with the change of environment. Life becomes tough for organisms that are unable to adapt to the environment.
The Darwin theory of evolution describes how organisms evolve by adapting to changes in the environment to be able to continue living in the environment without facing challenges that might make the organism unable to continue living on the given environment (Zollner). The theory argues that organisms with the best features in response to the environment. The organisms become stronger because they can deal with various challenges that come up. For instances, the climatic conditions have changed over the years where global warming has led to a reduction of rainfall significantly. Organisms have reduced the amount of water and food that they used to consume to cope with the environmental changes that have already occurred.
However, not all organisms can adapt to the environmental changes that occur in the environment. Some organisms face challenges adapting to the new environments; therefore, they die because they don't can live in new environments without changing to adapt to the changes. The strongest animals are the ones that can survive under the changed environment. The organisms that have changed to adapt to the changed environment are completely new and complete from the organisms that existed before. Organisms have changed over the years to suit the ever-changing world. They become resistant to challenges that used to exist before. The scientist believes that organisms are becoming more complex in their behaviors and their structure to be able to live in a complex environment that is demanding. The better the organism adapt the environment the easier the animal will live.
Detecting the Macroevolutionary Signal of Species Interactions
This journal suggests that the interaction of several species is dependent on several theories of macroevolution (Andreozzi et al.). Some of these theories are Red Queen and adaptive radiation. Previous research has presented findings on this relationship suggesting that there is a relationship between the interactions on microevolution pattern of an organism and diversification. The study aimed to review the literature available and to evaluate the models that connect the two macroevolutionary patterns. The evidence presented through the prior research is strong, but further study should be carried out to spur an understanding of the two microevolutionary aspects and the impact they have on each other.
Red Queen theory describes two identical views that are based on coevolution (Andreazzi et al.). The main hypothesis of this theory is that coevolution has the probability of causing extinction for millions of years. The primary idea in this theory is that coevolved interactions transform species and have the probability of leading to the extinction of other species. The evolutionary change occurs typically in prey or a host, and it subsequently leads to extinction of the predator or a parasite. The changes are sometimes as a result of the aging of the species. The Red Queen hypothesis was named so because the species had to evolve to stay at the same pace. The other idea presented in this theory is that coevolution, especially between parasites and hosts, has the probability of leading to oscillations in the frequencies of the genotype. The genotype frequencies oscillations are applicable in sexual reproduction. Coevolutionary interactions occur in most invertebrates and plants where sexual reproduction in hosts takes place. This helps in reducing the risk of infection in offspring.
The second theory analyzed in this article is adaptive radiation which refers to an increase in the number of species that have a similar ancestor (Andreazzi et al.). The species are characterized by ecological and morphological diversity. Birds, for example, have a common ancestor, but their beaks size have evolved and changed in size as well as morphology. The changes in different species help different birds depending on the food they eat. According to this theory, the origin of unusual species is the islands. An explanation for this is because the species lack competition in a gives them a special chance. The increase or decrease in the number of offspring is dependent on the ability of the species to survive in a particular environment when species are in a different environment where there are different climate, nesting places and the food they have to adapt to survive.
No Selection for Change in Polyandry under Experimental Evolution
In evolutionary biology variation in the mating is an issue of concern. Polyandry greatly suffers the consequences of these changes (Travers, et al.). This type of mating is both advantageous and disadvantageous in terms of costs. Several studies enforce monandry in polyandrous species. Monandry is a mating pattern where a female has a single mate at a time. On the other hand, polyandry is the mating pattern where a female has many males at a time. No particular study has been carried out to determine how variations in polyandry are maintained between genotypes, individuals, species and populations.
In polyandry variation in genetics is maintained by selection or selectively neutral. Polyandry is beneficial to the offspring who interbreed (Travers, et al.). In a population where there is no colonization mating between species of the same ancestor is common but this lessens when new species that start colonizing the ecology arrive. In a population where there are species with different ancestors polyandrous benefits the offspring because the mating is among half-siblings rather than full siblings.
In several species, female mating with more than one male is common (Travers, et al.). Polyandry has negative implications which include sexual conflicts, competition for a mate, as well choice of a mate. It also leads to waste of energy, and time, and accelerated risks of spreading diseases and predation, as well as death in extreme cases a female, does not have the chance to choose a suitable mate but rather mates with any species. This type of mating, however, has several advantages which include paternal care in the future.
The offspring live together and benefit from the diversity in genes (Travers, et al.). Additionally, polyandry helps the female to have the species with genes that are compatible with the female genome. There is also a rise in the diversity of the offspring who live together because a female who has several mates will have offspring from different males. If the offspring mate then it will be between half-siblings so there will be a decreased number of pure inbreeding.
A study carried out on Drosophila pseudoobscura showed that there exists a difference between and within specific populations (Travers, et al.). Isofemale lines were used to find out the populations that have high or low polyandry levels. For seven generations there were no changes which mean that stability was maintained. Additionally, there was no balancing in the selection, and there was no distinction between high and low polyandry genotypes. Through comparison between the ancestral females and the evolved ones, there were no effects of polyandry. There is an absence of differentiating selection even in populations with significant differences. This is a disadvantage because it creates doubt on whether polyandry is useful in creating mental fitness or not.
In conclusion, for evolution to be persistent, the organisms need to have reproductive traits and must-have fitness components that will make the lineage to continue without facing extinction.
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