The term evolutionary mechanism refers to the changes in allele frequencies within a single population. There may be changes in Allele frequencies in a population caused by four fundamental forces of evolution which include: Genetic Drift, Natural Selection, Gene Flow and Mutations.
Local genetic differentiation of populations requires an understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms behind them. Debates on a relative importance of natural selection and random genetic drift to population differentiation have continued over time. Linanthus Parryae the desert plant has been a subject of discussion in these debates which try to find out causes of Spatial differentiation for flower color. These Plants produce either white or blue flower, and local populations usually differ significantly in the frequencies of the two-color traits (Schemske et.al,pg.1270).
Since the field of population genetics was first discovered, the importance of random genetic drift and natural selection has been the subject of debate in evolutionary biology. This paper seeks to establish the evolutionary mechanism which causes the color difference of flowering plant Linanthus Parryae.
From the research carried out for over seven years, it was found that one reason for the spatial differences in the frequencies of flower morphs were initially created by genetic drift.This explanation corresponds with Wrightsconclusions that local variationsin the flower color of L. parryae were due mainly to the effects of genetic drift (Wright 1943b, 1978). From the research, it is evident that the two sides of Ravine were ecologically similar. Therefore, the only variations that are possible would only lie within the genetic structure of the plants.
The second evolutionary mechanism which causes the color difference of flowering plant Linanthus Parryae.Was found to be natural selection. This natural selection favored different color morphs of flowers on each side of the ravine. Natural selection is the process whereby organisms which have adapted better to their environment manage to survive and produce more of their species. Since the two sides of Ravine were ecologically similar, the probable reason as to why the plant showed color difference could be natural selection. In this way, the plant is seen to have adapted well in its different environments of Ravine. This explanation goes in line with theconclusions which were finally supported by Epling et al. (1960) in their empirical studies.
From the discussion, above, it is easy to identify thatunderstanding the evolutionary mechanisms that have an impact to the local genetic differentiation of populations is the main aim of the continuously changing biology. Linanthus parryaeplant has performed a major role in promoting this research through the many decades of practical and theoretical research on the causes of spatial differentiation for flower color.
Rausher, Mark D. "Evolutionary transitions in floral color." International Journal of Plant Sciences 169.1 (2008): pg.7-21.
Schemske, Douglas W., and Paulette Bierzychudek. "Perspective: evolution of flower color in the desert annual Linanthus parryae: Wright revisited." Evolution 55.7 (2001): pg.1269-1282.
Stebbins, G. Ledyard. "Adaptive radiation of reproductive characteristics in angiosperms, I: pollination mechanisms." Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics (1970): pg. 307-326.
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