The Arizona gender pay gap is has been on the rise in the United States of America. Men are getting 1% more than the women, weighed on a gross diverse average gross in hourly earnings. Even if there has been a downfall in payments between men and women in the past 30 years, the news has shown little to no developments in recent years. Arizona has a tendency of each generation of women having better opportunities relative to the ones who were there before them. The trend has been decreasing with the current generation slightly having better opportunities than the one that was there before. After research, several factors have arisen such that there is inequality; differences in opinions are among others becoming more common (Meulders 37).
The gap fluctuates when it comes to noting the kind of work involved; in the year 2009 hourly rates for men were much higher than that of women for all part-timers. Between private and the public sector the gap is closely changing. For instance, in the private sector, the pay gap was estimated to be 21.7% as compared to the 13.8% for the public sector. Paradoxically, statistics of 2009 showed that for the ages of 16-17 years old women earn a total of 12.6% than those of the men as compared to part-time jobs the men were earning a whole lot more than women that is, 1.3%. Surveys conducted online have shown some contradictions in the types of systems of payments that exist. The objective of this paper is to explore some of the possible causes and origin through a systematic analysis of the political and socio-cultural value of Arizona State relating to pay gap, and bringing up some recommendations that could be applied to drive it out (The Simple Truth About the Gender Pay Gap 2012).
Inception treats regarding how women are being discriminated, some of the stereotyping of women and their careers, ideas and notions regarding women's work, and lastly how the social roots behave on the present women life. The preceding part with a focus on actions that the government is putting into place, and the state of mind of the Arizona State, and the American precautions regarding the fight for fair or equal pay gaps (Hirsch 26).
Reasons for the pay gap
There are many reasons that surround the issue of the pay gap that exists in Arizona State; recent research has brought out some ideas and hypotheses, exploration of unique features when analyzing specified data sets, for there to be answers to the hard questions regarding pay gaps. Differences in lifetimes are among the forefront of the existing pay gaps, labor market rigidities, direct discrimination and preference in careers among individuals and lastly the power of education among older women as compared to the upcoming ones (Higgins 49).
Discrimination has been used as a scapegoat or reason for the current situation that exists regarding the gender pay gap. Pieces of evidence have pointed out some sources as the cause for the elevated gap regarding recruitment, selection processes, job stereotyping, are among other thing perpetrators of an industrial profile thus men domination of high profiled jobs with a higher pay while the women occupy the lower paying ones (Chowdhry 51).
It saddens to see a manager in the year 2007 was paid 12.2% more than the females. Women in the same job as men are still being paid lower than their counterpart's women. The same source indicates that women that are aged 44 years have better capabilities than the men but are still being paid lower wages with a 21% deficit (Billitteri 56).
State by state analysis that was recently released by the Equal Pay Day tomorrow indicated that women that are employed on a full-time basis, the whole year in Arizona has a payment of 82 cents to any given dollars that are paid to their opposite sex which accounts to a yearly short of $8,420. Therefore, it is evident that women in Arizona have been losing $14.4 billion annually due to the pay gap differences (Tackling the Gender Pay Gap in the European Union, 2013). If the gender wage gap were to be closed completely, then it means that a woman living in Arizona would have an added advantage of more 55 weeks of added food for her family, added six more mortgage and utility payments, and lastly but not least they would have an added year for tuition and fees in a public university (Gregory 60).
An analysis that was conducted by the National Partnership for women and families with the aid of data retrieved from the U.S Census Bureau names Arizona as the 19th smallest when it comes to the cents-on-the-dollar gap in the whole of America. There is also the existence of a gender-based wage gap in all single state and the whole of Columbia. The cent-on-the-dollar gap indicates to be larger than in any other state in Louisiana and Utah, while on the other hand smallest in Florida (Pal 36).
Arizona is not the only state that is experiencing this effects associated with gender-based wage gap. It has fatal effects on the spending of power in women in a total of 50 states and including District of Columbia. A wage gap is a huge contributor to the country's poverty and income inequality, but it has more effects on the women of color. Non-Hispanic women are lesser paid up to 79 cents as compared to each dollar paid to a male counterpart, non-Hispanic men (Morgenstern 78).
Women have been working more than the men to make sure that they are trying to compensate for Equal Pay Day for the year ending 2017 through 2018. The wage gap cannot be relying solely on women's choices. Therefore, discriminating has a hand in contributing to the gender wage gap, and it is clear that it is leading woman in grave harm and their family's country. The government and other concerned lawmakers are not making sure that they are taking care of the situation in ending the gender-based wage gap and discrimination. They should make sure they are ending sexual harassment; it is a cause that makes women not to advance in their careers and jobs; pregnant women are also discriminated, the payment should be advanced regarding family and medical leave plus they should be paid for the evil days. There should be put up high-quality, affordable reproductive health care for the women (Chowdhry 41).
The gender-based wage gap has brought about losses and made it harder for women, in Arizona State and all over the nation, for their food and shelter, and other important expenses such as the college tuition, birth control and other forms of healthcare. Public policies should be put in place so that they can take care of women's access to better and improved paying jobs, come up with appropriate support that the women require so that they can stay in their jobs ensuring non-discriminatory and fair treatment in the places that the specified women are working and the type of jobs they hold. The concerned authorities should ensure that it is taking care of the situation rather than escalating it. They should ensure that they are promoting the Equal Opportunity commission rather than blocking it thus implementing the initiative thus identifying and assisting in removing pay discrimination (Munalula 50).
Good resolutions that can be put in place to ensure that an end to the gender-based discrimination comes to an end could be made by passing out a law that deters the employer from asking an employee for her salary history and at the same time protect the employee from retaliation in a case where they discuss pay. The private sector can ensure that it is participating in the same role by making sure that they are making transparent payments increasingly. The strategy will assist greatly in limiting the use of a salary history and standardized pay ranging in the hiring and promotions. Lifting wages for women who are in the low-wage jobs through the raising of the minimum wage and on the other hand ensuring that the tipped workers to get their minimum wage that is before they are given their tips. The building of ladders is important for better-paying jobs of women through a calculated move and agreement of doing away with barriers to entering the male-dominated areas. Pay laws should be strengthened for the women so that they have an equal opportunity to make sure that they are fighting back for their equal rights of pay discrimination (Roth 90).
The pay gap has brought about a lot of questions which go above and beyond nature versus nurture. The Arizona State should not be forced to take innate qualities so that they can be able to fix the gender wage gap. The causes are very many, and the debates continue to mount more and more mentalities changed so that they can cater to the inequality. As pointed out by various researches the controversy regarding the gender wage equality is far from being over and also discrimination among women of color. However, there are plans in place to mobilized and try to close this gaps by the international organizations.
Arizona State will have to take into account other states that are doing well with the problems of the gender based wage gap for them to reduce or completely close the gap. There should also be more advance initiatives put in place to ensure that they are influencing the choice of women when it comes to choosing their careers and area or profession. Raising awareness worldwide will assist in driving the problem out. Arizona State should not make sure that it is residing in vicious circles.
Closing of the gender based wage gaps, is an important part for the woman in the society of Arizona so as to improve if not completely finish gender based wage gaps. The improving or doing away with gender based wage discrimination will promote better standards and therefore, it will improve the lives and families of the women and people in their communities.
Billitteri, Thomas J. Gender Pay Gap: Are Women Paid Fairly in the Workplace?Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 2008. Print.
Chowdhry, Prem. Understanding Women's Land Rights: Gender Discrimination in Ownership. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications Inc, 2017. Print.
Gregory, Raymond F. Women and Workplace Discrimination: Overcoming Barriers to Gender Equality. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press, 2003. Print.
Higgins, Melissa. The Gender Wage Gap. New York: ABDO Digital, n.d.. Print.
Hirsch, Boris. Monopsonistic Labour Markets and the Gender Pay Gap: Theory and Empirical Evidence. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2010. Print.
Meulders, Daniele. The Gender Pay Gap: Origins and Policy Responses : a Comparative Review of 30 European Countries. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Commission, 2006. Print.
Morgenstern, Constantin B. Der Gender Pay Gap: Die Ursachen Und Konsequenzen Der Unterbezahlung Weiblicher Fuhrungskrafte Im Vergleich Zu Ihren Mannlichen Kollegen. , 2012. Internet resource.Munalula, Mulela M. Women, Gender Discrimination, and the Law: Cases and Materials. Lusaka: UNZA Press for the School of Law, the University of Zambia, 2005. Print.
Pal, Manoranjan. Gender and Discrimination: Health, Nutritional Status, and Role of Women in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.
Roth, Louise M. Selling Women Short: Gender and Money on Wall Street. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008. Internet resource.Tackling the Gender Pay Gap in the European Union. , 2013. Internet resource.The Simple Truth About the Gender Pay Gap. Washington, DC: AAUW, 2012. Internet resource.
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