Essay Sample. Hybrid OSI - TCP/IP Architecture

Published: 2023-03-12
Essay Sample. Hybrid OSI - TCP/IP Architecture
Type of paper:  Research paper
Categories:  Internet Computer science Software
Pages: 5
Wordcount: 1333 words
12 min read

When there are changes on a network from IPv4 to IPv6, the systems on the internet will always be hybrid by using both IPv4 and IPv6 networks. This always explains the essentials of the information about the compatibility, which is between the IPv4 and IPv6 mechanisms. To make it possible for communication, 6 to of the tunneling mechanisms are required for encryption from IPv4 to IPv6 networks.

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Like many of networking software. IP/TCP is mainly modeled into various segments. This kind of representation always leads to the term protocol stack, which primarily refers to the layers of stack in a suite of the protocol. It might also be used in positioning but mainly not for the functional comparison of the TCP/IP suite of the protocol against the rest - for example, Open System Interconnection and the System Network models. Useful comparisons cannot be extracted from this because of the difference in a layered model in the use of suites of the protocol (Stevens et al. 2011). In dividing the communications into different layers, the protocol task usually allows in code testing, implementation, and divisions of labor and its abilities in the development of the alternative layers of applications. This kind of layer often communicates the below and above via consciousness interface.

IP or TCP is a set of network protocols that are known best in connection with the machines which make up the internet. This TCP/IP is mainly the oldest network protocol, and its survival is primarily based on universality and simplicity. This underlying IP protocol does not understand the network state, and it does mostly not attempt to make any guarantees. Hence, all the controls have to be done at the endpoint. It also covers the network protocols whereby they still use in other networks, for example, sequent packet exchange, apple talk, and rarely used the system, which is NetBIOS enhances the user interface. This TCP/IP is majorly used in the examinations and most tested knowledge. The IP/TCP is majorly the most used in all worlds. TCP/IP is somewhat limiting in a career in considering to become a network engineer. TCP/IP is always used in providing network communication in the majority of countries, universities, and companies. Anywhere there is a network probability is still very high that it is a TCP/IP in use. By dividing the communication the software into layers, the protocol stack always allows the code testing a division of labor and the alternatives of being able to develop other implementations.

The purpose of the data link layer is it provides the structure of the 1s and 0s, which are mainly sent over the media. That is, by adding the groupings to the seemingly arbitrary bits which are being placed on and are extracted from the media network, this data link layer always provides meaningful data which is between the upper layers of the receiving and sending of the nodes. The IP/TCP network access layers are still equivalent to the OSI that is the physical and the data link. The link data layer is responsible for the exchanges on the frames, which is between the nodes, which are over the physical media network. It always gives the upper layers in accessing the media and in controlling how the data is received and placed on the press. A point to note is that the layer two notations on the network devices, which is connected to a shared medium, is referred to as a node.

This layer is also responsible for getting a packet over the physical layer. It always used to determine how the bits are organized and arranged into different frames. For the Ethernet, it majorly includes collisions. A good illustration is the MAC layer, which has the 48-bit MAC address and has the Ethernet frames, PPP, 802.15.5 ZigBee, 802.15 WIFI networks. These Mac addresses are mainly useful where there is a physical network. In this case, the media refers to the materials which carry the data signals, such as optical fiber and copper cables. The data link is divided into two various layers, and those are media access control- which lowers the sub-layers, which defines the media access process performed by the hardware. It also provides the data link layer in delimiting and addressing the data as per the requirements of the physical signal of its medium and on the type of the data link layer protocol which is in use. The other layer is the logical link control- this is the upper layer, which explains the software processes which will provide the services on the network layer protocols. It always places the information in the frame, which identifies which type of network layer protocol is in use on the frame. This type of information is essential as it allows for multiple layer three protocols, for example, IPv6 and IPv6, to utilize the same network media and interface (Vasseur, 2010). By separating this data link layers into the sub-layers has allowed the defining by the upper layer in accessing the different type of the media, which is defined d by the lower layer. Such cases are always in the LAN technologies, which include the Ethernet.

Even when on a node that has been upgraded to IPv6, its use is always dependent on the applications. The application may not be a position to use networking API, which asks the name of the services for the IPv6 address. The applications may use an API, like the sockets, which may require the changes in the app? Also, an API provider, which entails the implementation of the java. Net class may not be in a position to support IPv6 addresses; in either situation, the use of node is only to receive and send the IPv4 packets as an IPv4 would do. The IPv6 unaware is an application that cannot handle the IPv6 addresses. That is, it cannot have a conversation with nodes that do not have a UPv4 address (Hartpence, B. 2011). While the IPv6 aware is an application that can converse with nodes that have no IPv4 address, this means that this application can handle larger IPv6 addresses. In other circumstances, the address might be a direct one on its implementation, as illustrated when API doesn't show the contents and the format of the address. The IPv6 required is an application that requires some IPv6 specific features. Hence it's not in a position to operate over the IPv4. The IPv6 enabled might always use features of flow labels, and its enabled applications are a key in doing its operations over IPv4, though in a mode of degradation. During this period of gradual transitions from the IPv4 to IPv6, the existing IPv4 applications will always continue working with the new IPv6 applications. Initially, the vendors provided the router and hosted the platforms which run on a dual-stack (Meinel, 2013).

Conclusively, TCP/IP is a time tested and proofed technology that is all over the world on its existing platforms of the operating systems. During recent times, the TCP? IP has been used widely in transporting critical streaming data such as audio and video over the global market. Hence, there is a new version of IP, IPv6, which is in the process of formulation and taking care of the shortcomings of the IPv4, thus making it more suitable for its real, time data applications on communications. The protocols facilitate the movement of the real-time data streams on the existing WANs and LANs, which is a basis on the internet protocol technology. Its overall performance has been due to the acceptability of the Ethernet being a LAN technology that has enhanced high-performance platforms as Mbps.


Hartpence, B. (2011). Packet guide to routing and switching. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Media.

Meinel, C., & Sack, H. (2013). Internetworking: Technological foundations and applications.

Stevens, W. R., & Fall, K. W. (2011). TCP/IP illustrated: Volume 1. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Vasseur, J.-P., & Dunkels, A. (2010). Interconnecting smart objects with IP: The next Internet. Burlington, MA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers/Elsevier.

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