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Pneumonia is a disease characterized by the inflammation of the lung tissues. In most cases, it is caused by a bacterial infection. However, it can originate from viruses, mycoplasmas, bacteria, and other infectious agents. The risk factors associated with pneumonia include cigarette smoking, Chronic Lung Diseases (COPD), bronchiectasis, cerebral palsy as well as cystic fibrosis. In addition, pneumonia could also be caused by major illnesses such as the heart diseases, liver cirrhosis or diabetes. In the past, there have been debates revolving around the best treatment for pneumonia. This is a meta-analysis research on past publications analyzing the best treatment for pneumonia.
Background Information on Pneumonia Treatment
The cure of pneumonia is dependent on the causative factors of the infection. Such treatment can range from outpatient to surgical treatments. There are no certified ways of preventing pneumonia. However, there are several measurers that can help a person to reduce the risk of infection. In addition, in the event of pneumonia infection, there are several proven ways that a person can use for treatment. Nevertheless, since there are different forms of pneumonia the treatment for different forms of the illness may vary. While some people could be treated at home, others might require hospitalization. A doctor can outline a persons form of pneumonia treatment by considering the form of pneumonia infection affecting the person, the severity of the infection, age, and his overall health.
Bacterial pneumonia can be cured using various antibiotics. Such antibiotics can improve the health of the infected person for two to three days. Persons who are very old or infants that may be experiencing shortness of breath as well as high fever could be admitted to a medical institution for intravenous antibiotics. On the other hand, viral pneumonia is normally treated at home or outside the hospital. In most cases, viral pneumonia is caused by the flu, and it can be treated using an antiviral medication commonly known as Tamiflu (oseltamivir). Fungal pneumonia is characterized by an unusual shape of the chest which can be determined using an x-ray scan. All these forms of pneumonia could be diagnosed by performing a blood test on a patient in order to ascertain the best antibiotics to use for treatment.
There are more than ten types of fungi that can make a person attain fungal pneumonia. In most cases, fungal pneumonia affects people with a weakened immune system. Aspiration pneumonia is a form of pneumonia that occurs when the contents of the stomach are inhaled into the lungs creating breathing complications. Necrotizing pneumonia is a viral pneumonia that is infected by a bacteria called staphylococcus. Ultimately, there are no proven alternatives to eradicate all the germs that cause pneumonia. Nevertheless, there are numerous remedies, which aid a person with pneumonia to manage his/her condition. Some of such remedies include; getting plenty of rest, abstain from smoking, eating a healthy meal and abstaining from drinking alcohol.
Relevance of The Research to The Nursing Practice
Today, there are more than 30 primary causes of pneumonia (McTague, 2014). Tragically, approximately 80 persons Britain succumb daily from pneumonia and flu (McTague, 2014). This figure is high when compared to the statistics of pneumonia and flu related deaths in other locations in Europe. By 2015, pneumonia accounted for 15% of all children mortality rate in the world (McTague, 2014). This statistic was for children aged between one month and five years old. Pneumonia killed nine hundred and twenty thousand, one hundred and thirty-six children in 2015 (McTague, 2014). For this reason, the research on the best ways to prevent and treat pneumonia is important to the nursing practice.
This meta-analysis will focus on the best treatment for pneumonia. This is in light to the increased number of deaths due to pneumonia and pneumonia related complications. Since there are various types of pneumonia, their infections can also vary. This research focuses on answering the research questions as to whether the use of antibiotics is the best and most creative method of treating pneumonia and pneumonia related infections. The research questions to address in this case include: Is the use of antibiotics is the best remedy for treating pneumonia? Are their instances where antibiotics have been used to successfully treat pneumonia in the past?
Literature Review on Pneumonia Treatment
The use of antibiotics to treat pneumonia can be substantially supported by a research publication developed by (Enarson et al., 2014). The publication detailed a research that was carried out on the reduction of deaths caused by severe pneumonia among children in Malawi. This was through the improvement of healthcare services delivery in pneumonia cases. The intervention was facilitated by the Child Lung Heath Program (CLHP) and the existing government health care services in Malawi. According to the outcomes of the study, it was evident that the use of antibiotics in treating pneumonia was an effective strategy that would help in reducing the children mortality rate due to pneumonia in Malawi.
A publication authored by (Patel et al., 2015) can also be used to support the effectiveness of antibiotics in treating pneumonia complications. The publication was from a research conducted to find out the effectiveness of a randomized controlled trial of pneumonia treatments in hospitals. That was evaluated against a home based therapy intervention of treating severe pneumonia using oral amoxicillin. The participants of the research were children aged 3 to 59 months. According to the results of the research, it was ascertained that oral amoxicillin portrayed substantial results in treating children aged 3 to 59 months suffering from pneumonia.
The effectiveness of antibiotics in the treatment of pneumonia can also be supported by a peer-reviewed article authored by Christi et al. (2015). The article was a summary of findings from research that was performed to determine the treatment failure and high infant mortality rate of children suffering from severe malnutrition. The affected children manifested coughs, respiratory difficulties as well as radiological pneumonia. The findings of the study portrayed that there was a significant control of infant mortality rate among the children who were treated using antibiotics. The used antibiotics that were recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). In the research, ampicillin and gentamicin antibiotics among other micro nutrients recommended by WHO were used.
The effectiveness of treating pneumonia using antibiotics can also be supported by a peer-reviewed publication authored by Gupta et al. (2012). The article was a summary of a research conducted to outline the guidelines for diagnosis and managing the community and hospital acquired pneumonia among adults. According to the research findings, an early clinical detection, as well as the use of antibiotics, could greatly aid in the eradication as well as the control of both community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia among adults.
According to a publication authored by Campbell et al. (2013), the use of antibiotics is an effective strategy to treat pneumonia. The publication was a summary of research carried out in determining the challenges encountered in monitoring the proportion of children suffering from pneumonia infection and receiving antibiotic treatment. According to the publication, antibiotics are highly effective in treating pneumonia. The results of the research specified that there is a high need for a reduction in the cost of antibiotics. This is in an effort to make them more affordable to many persons than in the past, in an effort to reduce the number of children suffering from pneumonia every year.
The appropriateness of using antibiotics to treat pneumonia can also be supported by a publication developed by Teshome et al. (2015). The publication was a summary of a research focusing on the usage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus score risk in the classification of pneumonia patients in a community and the outcome attained through treatment. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a form of bacteria that is responsible for several hard to treat infections in humans. The results of this research portrayed that the usage of MRSA therapy that contains methicillin antibiotics in treating community attained pneumonia immensely reduced the mortality rate of patients suffering from pneumonia.
The effectiveness in treating pneumonia can also be supported by a publication authored by Hellenkamp et al. (2016). The publication was a summary of a research that focused on the early detection of pneumonia as well as antibiotic therapy timing, among patients suffering from non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The publication immensely supported the effectiveness of using antibiotics to treat. The results of the research indicated that immediate antibiotic therapy to patients after OHCA could greatly reduce the duration of hospital admittance as well as ICU stay by patients. This is because the use of antibiotics therapy to treat pneumonia is highly effective.
The effectiveness of antibiotics for pneumonia treatment can also be supported by a publication that was authored by Hazir (2013). The article focused on measuring the coverage of MNCH, which is a prospective validation study that was performed in Bangladesh and Pakistan, in the act of determination of the correct treatment for childhood pneumonia. Hazirs research immensely support the importance of antibiotics in the treatment of pneumonia, both in national and global programs. According to the findings of the research, the use of antibiotics was ascertained to be the best strategy for treating childhood pneumonia.
Awasthti et al. (2015) developed a publication summarizing the research focusing on management of pneumonia among children. The research was ascertained by using participants from the grass root healthcare providers situated in Northern India, Uttar Pradesh as well as Bihar. According to the publication, the Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is considered to be the leading factor contributing to the infant mortality rate due to pneumonia (Awashti et al., 2015). Globally, approximately one-quarter of all deaths arising from pneumonia occur in India. According to the publication, the results of the research indicated that in order to eradicate CAP-associated mortality, identification of pneumonia danger signs as well as the treatment of pneumonia using antibiotics immensely benefits the affected region. This is through the reduction of mortality rate caused by pneumonia.
Calabrese and Dhawan (2013) developed a publication summarizing the findings of research on how radio therapy was historically employed for the treatment of pneumonia. The research was focused on finding if the same strategy can be used in treating pneumonia today. According to the publication, in the 1940s radio therapy was employed in the treatment of interstitial pneumonia. Nevertheless, with the advancement of modern medicine, the use of antibiotics has become the most effective way of treating pneumonia. As such the use of radiotherapy to cure pneumonia will not be as effective as using antibiotics to treat the infection.
The efficiency of using antibiotics to cure pneumonia can also be supported by a publication authored by Bucior et al. (2013). In his publication, Bucior focused on the administration of sugar to a person as an effective adjunctive therapy for treating Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pneumonia. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa is a gram...
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