|Type of paper:||Report|
|Categories:||Child development Language development|
Stage: According to Piaget, children at the age of 3 years are classified to be at the symbolic function substage (Barrouillet, 2015).They are expected to be able to manipulate information logically and think in symbols and images. Also, they should demonstrate pro-social behaviors and have egocentric attitudes (Barrouillet, 2015).
The child was able to speak out some simple words; for example, he could tell dad, mam. The child demonstrated the ability to remember events for example; he would remember where his play toys were and would pick them by himself. Also, the child could remember simple Mathematics such as 1+1 and even count 1 to 10. The child was active and demonstrated good concentration abilities. The child would name familiar objects whenever asked.
The child cried a lot of could not remembers nor concentrate on objects as he played with other kids. He would cry every time and easily forget where he kept his play toy. Child one is normal while child two presents some cognitive problems in his growth patterns. From the Piaget's cognitive development theory, children at three of three years old should be able to think logically and think using colors and symbols. From the observation made, the child one was able to remember and do simple calculations. Memory and concentration are essential for cognitive performance and it is evident that child two demonstrated a poor ability to remember and concentrate.
Stage: According to Erickson, the child with three years belongs to the stage 2 of development. The crisis at this stage involves autonomy, shame, and doubt while the virtue is will. At this stage, children start being independent and that they can handle issues on their own. At this stage, parents have to encourage their children properly so that they don't develop shame and doubts about their abilities (Cherry, 2015). The child played with others and was aggressive. He seemed to disturb others. Also, he would respond accordingly to emotions such a he would get sad when provoked or when the play toy was taken away. The child also showed greater affection to parents and familiar people around.
The child was angry always and would cry. He would not associate with any other person apart from the mother and father. The child was violent and would always beat up other children as they played. Both the children were at the expected stage based on the observation. The only difference is that they responded differently to the environment and this might have been influenced by the parenting. According to Erickson, children at age three are at the stage of autonomy, shame and doubt. Therefore, the parents have to encourage them to develop confidence. On the other hand, failure to encourage them may result to fear and lack of confidence as evident in the observation made for the sick child.
At three years old, a child is expected to be able to pronounce vowels correctly. They should be able to say their names and speak about 300 words. Also, they should be able to answer simple questions when asked and tell stories. The child was able to articulate a few words such as mother, father, home, and teacher. The child was also so inquisitive and demonstrated a high level of curiosity to know more during the interactions. The child could speak out and mention objects in the surrounding. Language development is also an important element in the assessment of the child's growth pattern. From the observations made, the normal child demonstrated the ability to communicate and responded to question ns whenever asked. The child was also inquisitive and could tell stories on his own. The second child was also able to articulate simple words and could communicate.
The child should be active and play with others.
They should also be able to jump, hop and even kick balls.
The child was active and would throw balls and play with the mates. Also, he could bend easily without falling as well as hop without difficulties.
The child was inactive and unstable. He was always dull and thus it was difficult identifying some factors such as the ability to stand on one leg, hop or even bend easily. The first child was active and aggressive; he could comfortably play with other children. On the other hand, the second child was docile and could not go out and play with other children. Therefore, the first child meet the normal play expectations for a three years old while the second child did not match the expectations.
Effects of illness/hospitalization
Children at age three are afraid of the hospital environment because they associate it with injections. Therefore, they will always be afraid of going to the hospital and may feel angry whenever they appear in the doctors' rooms The child was stable and seemed not to have been affected by the hospitalization significantly. The child was dull and angry
The child was angry and dull. He did not want to come out of her mother Both the children responded accordingly to the hospitalization and illness. It is expected that children fear and develop anger when taken to the hospital because they fear injections and medicines administered to the patients.
Gross motor skills
The gross motor skills include the ability to kick balls, run up and down, stand on one leg without falling and move up the stairs (Trawick-Smith, 014). The gross motor skills evident in the normal child included the ability to jump over a line, walk up and down stairs and kicking the ball. The boy would move up and down the stairs; though, in a steady and slow movement.
The child was able to move up and down the stairs and would kick the ball without difficulty Both the children demonstrated the acceptable gross motor skills for three years old child.
Fine Motor skills Ability to fold papers into half
Holding crayons with the fingers or thumb
Turning the pages of a book singly
Ability to draw straight and circular lines
Playing with toys and small moving buttons or objects (Moore, 2017). The child would draw lines in the book and imitate the drawing patterns created by his teacher. Also, he could turn a single page in a book. The child would draw irregular lines on the book. He could fold papers into half and open single pages on the book. Fine motor skills are essential in a child's growth. The skills include the ability to fold papers into halves and to open the page book one by one among others. From the observation and assessment conducted, child one was able to draw straight lines and mimic patterns created by the teacher. Therefore, the child's fine motor skills were up to the expected standard. Child two also demonstrated good fine motor skills; though, with some weaknesses.
The normal behavior of a three years old child I expected to be active and play. At this stage, children become independent and can manipulate things on their own. They are also expected to move up and down, climb stairs and be able to communicate and tell stories. At the age, the child's cognitive abilities are developed, and thus they can concentrate and respond accordingly to the stimuli. Their experience with the parents plays a major role in determining their level of confidence. They should be able to communicate about 200 words. According to Piaget, a three years old child must be able to manipulate information logically and think in symbols and images (Barrouillet, 2015).
The normal child was active and could play with others comfortably. He demonstrated various gross and fine motor skills and acceptable language abilities for a child at the age of three years. It is expected that a three years old child be able to play actively with others, stand, hop and climb chairs independently. The child could also tell simple stories and experiences about school and home. This shows that he was normal according to the expected language level for a three years old child.
The sick child could not comfortably construct straight lines and circles. However, he is at the expected level for a three years old child because he could flip book pages and fold the paper in half. Therefore, the child's development was slackened, and he was behind the normally expected stage for a three years old child. The child also demonstrated some positive growth characteristics. For example, he was able to move up and down and kick balls without difficulties.
Barrouillet, P. (2015). Theories of cognitive development: From Piaget to today. Link: http://daneshyari.com/article/preview/353439.pdf
Cherry, K. (2015). Erikson's psychosocial stages summary chart. About. com. Accessed July, 25. Link: http://www.ocfcpacourts.us/assets/files/list-758/file-1038.pdf
Moore, R. C. (2017). Childhood's domain: Play and place in child development (Vol. 6). Routledge. Link: https://www.routledge.com/Childhoods-Domain-Play-and-Place-in-Child-Development/Moore/p/book/9781138563582
Trawick-Smith, J. (2014). The physical play and motor development of young children: A review of literature and implications for practice. Center for Early Childhood Education Eastern Connecticut State University: http://www. easternct. edu. Link: http://www.easternct.edu/cece/files/2014/06/BenefitsOfPlay_LitReview.pdf
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