Negotiation is used in everyday life scenario. It starts at childhood when trading sports cards or toys to adulthood when negotiating about remuneration basis. It does not end there but continues between children and adults and amongst adults themselves. However, many people dislike negotiation since they see it as a hustle and always try to avoid the negotiation process. During the process, parties that perceive incompatibilities between themselves try and reach a mutually acceptable solution (Spangle & Isenhart, 2003). There exist two relatively different types of negotiation known as distributive and the integrative negotiations. These form the basis of achieving success in any business communication.
For the integrative negotiation method, there is a corporation or the joining of forces between the negotiating parties to achieve something together in the process. Ideally, it involves maximum trust and the formation of strong relationship before the negotiation process which can last latter. It displays communication role and personality in successful negotiation since both negotiation teams walk away feeling satisfied. Additionally, the results achieved are often in favor of a single party over the other since it is impossible that they both come to the negotiation table with equal strength when the negotiation process begins.
Distributive means giving out or scattering of some material things. In simple terms, there exist a limit in the things being distributed or scattered hence it is often referred to as the Fixed Pie. Using this method of negotiation, there is much to go around but the proportion that is expected to be distributed among the negotiating parties is limited but at the same time variable. When related to the real world scenario, the negotiating parties scrabble for the existing resources to get as much as possible. The goods seller wants to go for the best price while the buyer aims at paying a low price to achieve the best deal. Basically, the distributive negotiation method displays those roles in an unsuccessful negotiation since both people do not have a previous interactive relationship and it is a one-time occurrence. In this case, there is no particular interest to create a relationship with the other parties only for the purpose of the deal itself.
Various factors contributed the success of the negotiation. First, there existed multiple issues that were to be negotiated whereby each party needed to achieve something of value while trading for another thing of less value. This helped the negotiation team reach an amicable solution faster, hence the success of the negotiation process. Secondly, there existed sharing in the negotiation process which aimed at understanding each other. In this case, both parties were realistic in their expectations since the success of a negotiation can hardly be achieved without understanding the parameters. Corporation is the ultimate secret. Problem-solving approach significantly contributed to the success of the negotiation whereby one party offered something of lesser value to the counterpart hence helped in the realization of the set objective. Finally, in order to achieve a successful negotiation process, there is a need to build bridges that result in a sustainable relationship in the negotiation process. The failure of the negotiation process was also contributed to a number of various issues. Ideally, there was little or no information given to the other side of the negotiation party. In this case, the other party used this as a weak point to the advantage of the other. In essence, cards were played close to their chest hence the failure of the negotiation process. Each party accessed additional information from the other party that was uncovered and used as leverage against the other party to create a better deal. At the end of the day, no one won. Additionally, each party was too greedy and wanted to achieve their individual expectations. Possible solutions that could positively affect the outcome include being realistic in order to reduce greed from both negotiating teams and reveal as much information as possible in relation to the negotiation process. Additionally, it is essential to building a strong relationship before the negotiation process is initiated and establish a long-term negotiation with the other party.
Role of personality attributes in negotiation
Often time impressive personality attributes significantly affect good communication for an effective negotiation process. In this case, therefore, a charming personality attribute is the secret to the successful negotiation process.
Be honest: there is a need for the negotiation members to avoid pretense and try to look good. In case the deal is not satisfactory, it is better to raise concern.
Be sincere rather than serious: Sincerity forms an essential personality attribute towards a successful negotiation process. There is a need to be sincere in order to achieve an effective negotiation and avoid taking things casually. To achieve this, the agenda of the negotiation must be clear.
Honesty: During the negotiation process, honesty plays a significant role towards achieving the set goal of the negotiation process. It is essential that the negotiators avoid speaking lies that might derail the negotiation process.
Patience: studies have indicated that impatient people are very poor in the negotiation process (Swaab et al., 2012). In this case, therefore, it is essential that the negotiation teams be patience and get the side of the other team.
Flexibility and ability to compromise: during the negotiation process, giving a personal opinion is expected, but there is no need to be selfish. Additionally, all parties should be able to change their negotiation expectations for both parties to win.
Trust: For a successful negotiation, trust is also essential. The first party should not see the second party as an enemy and be arrogant. Creating trust before the negotiation process breaks the ice and strengthens the bond between the negotiating parties thereby resulting in positive feedback in the process.
Listening Skills: it is essential to listen be a good listener to achieve the negotiation objective more effectively. There is a need to give the other party enough time and highlight his points then make decisions thereafter.
Presentation: The dressing code and mode of presentation during the negotiation affects the perception of the other party. This is because a poorly made presented will immediately break the link between the two sides thereby compromising the negotiation objective.
How communication affected the outcomes of the negotiations
Effective communication is essential for achieving the goal of any negotiation process. The main goal is to highlight clear points that can be understood by the other party through communication ability. Communication breakdowns and miscommunication significantly affected the negotiation process. Good communication skills require the incorporation of both verbal and non-verbal skills to find solutions that respond to the prevailing issue in the negotiation process. In this case, cultivating the skill to conceptualize other party and listen can help establish solid foundation towards the negotiation process. Furthermore, it is essential to understand both the non-verbal communication which are culture bound and the verbal communication cues. It is essential to interpret the nonverbal behavior in the context and sequence of the happening. This is because the non-verbal behaviors are at times inconsistent with the verbal message portrayed in the negotiation process.
The main negotiation process often depends on of various factors such as the goal and interest of the individual parties, the nature in which the negotiation parties depend on each other, the past relationship that exists between the two negotiating parties, and the persuasive ability of each party which in the end will influence the other party(Benoliel, 2014). Additionally, there exist various ways in which the negotiator can affect the outcome of a negotiation process. The negotiator can let others know that they are in charge and take hard lines then later soften their position. Additionally, they can establish the best alternative to negotiated agreement (BATNA). The BATNA needs to be stronger in order to influence the negotiation position. Taking hard lines, however, cannot be the most effective tactic since the more extreme the negotiation process are, the more time and effort expected to reach an agreement. Each side strains the relationship between the parties thereby compromising the negotiation process. The best method of influence was the best alternative to negotiated agreement (BATNA). The identification of negotiation BATNA helped developed the best strategy that was used in the negotiation process hence the success achieved.
Every negotiation process involves risk, and it is essential to building trust before the negotiation process begins. Trust can be established over time, but the negotiation team hardly has the luxury of allowing the trust to build by itself. For that reason, it is essential to play it safe and encourage information sharing between the parties. The first essential step is to demonstrate trustworthiness which can be established through the following strategy:
Speak the negotiators language- Speaking the other partys language help build trust and at the same time help understand the technical aspects and the lingo. It involves catching all the nuances and the cultural implications of the communication. Additionally, taking the time to understand the other partys cultural aspects, history and perspective send a message of commitment to the relationship and the communication.
Manage reputation- In the negotiation process, reputation precedes each negotiating party. A bad reputation ruins the process from the start and therefore there is a need to create a build a good reputation and gain the other partys trust. Reputation is not only seen as a backdrop but also a tool that can help succeed in the negotiation process.
Be independent- The more dependent a negotiator is, the more willing the other party will have trust. This is because, in the negotiation process, both parties need each other to achieve their individual goals and being independent increases trust. The negotiator can build trust by highlighting the unique benefits he can provide.
Make independent concessions- Negotiations done for long term relationships are less focused on win and losses, and a careful crafted independent concession can help build trust and improve negotiation. However, the concession must come at a cost to the provider but the high benefit to the recipient.
Explain demands- It is essential to explain the negotiation expectation to the partner otherwise he may think you are greedy. When the other party sees an offer as extreme or hard to realize, trust can be diminished or even destroyed. A justified and well-explained offer may build and enhance trust level.
Benoliel, M. (2014). Negotiation Excellence. World Scientific Publishing Company.
Spangle, M., & Isenhart, M. W. (2003). Negotiation: Communication for diverse settings. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Swaab, R. I., Galinsky, A. D., Medvec, V., & Diermeier, D. A. (2012). The communication orientation model explaining the diverse effects of sight, sound, and synchronicity on negotiation and group decision-making outcomes. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 16(1), 25-53.
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