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The theory of evolution has captured the minds of many scientists who began to apply it to all fields of knowledge. The first Anti-Darwinian process prohibited to teach any theory that denied the story of the divine creation of human, described in the Bible. People had to teach other thoughts instead of that: that human has descended from a lower class of animals. Then states passed laws that required including creationist science in school programs along with the theory of evolution. Creationists advanced the following argument to support this position: many sentient beings arranged so perfectly that this perfection is simply not could arise as a result of a random selection of certain traits in the course of evolution.
Evolutionary theory is the theoretical basis of biology. Because it explains the main features, regularities and ways of development of the organic world, allows us to understand the cause of unity and the great diversity of the organic world, to find out the historical links between different forms of life and to predict its future development. Evolutionary theory summarizes the data of many biological sciences, enables us to understand the mechanisms and direction of a variability of living matter. Evolution includes a process of speciation and extinction as a historical process. The theory of evolution is inseparably linked with Darwins name. Darwin's theory has two interrelated factors. There are the struggle for existence and the natural selection. As a result, there is a constant struggle between living organisms, leading to the survival of the fittest organisms.
Thus, the purpose of the theory of evolution is to identify the patterns of development of the organic world in order to manage this process. Evolutionary theory solves the problems that arising from the necessary knowledge of the general laws of evolution, studies causes and mechanisms of transformation of life on all levels of its organization. It is essential for the practice of agriculture, breeding, protection of the environment. This theory of evolution allows us to understand the optimal strategy of the relationship between people and the surrounding nature.
The Egypt's Middle Kingdom.
The Middle Kingdom is the reign of the Pharaohs XI-XII dynasties. This period is considered to be one of the most important and significant steps in the development of ancient Egyptian architecture. In the historical sense, this period represents the unification of the state around the southern people that headed by the rulers of Thebes, which formed the XI dynasty.
Pharaoh Mentuhotep I was the founder of the Middle Kingdom. Egypt restored its former power and began to develop military and economic power during the reign of the pharaohs of the XII dynasty. Pharaohs began to conduct aggressive campaigns through the restored power of the state.. Nubia became one of Egypt's provinces. The number of slaves increased in the period of the Egypt's Middle Kingdom in comparison with the age of the Old Kingdom. At the centralized distribution of the king's people, the interests of the king's temple, and the noble households, representatives of imperial administration were taken into account first and foremost. The sustainable existence of medium farms was possible with using the slave labor, while other categories of workers were employed in it too. Slaves were required in many medium farms, where intensive farming methods were used and private property relations were strengthened every time. The development of private slavery was a characteristic feature of the social relations of the Egypt's Middle Kingdom.
Thus, ancient the Egypt's Middle Kingdom was not afraid of attacks from the outside. Because it had a strong internal organization and a secure system of fortifications in the South and North. On the one hand security system was based on the central power of the pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom, and on the other hand - on Asian weakness of the enemies of Egypt. But, unfortunately, two most important Egyptian security conditions disappeared few years later.
The Pharaoh AkhnatenEgypt reached the zenith of its power during the reign of Amenhotep III. However, the despotic power of the Pharaoh caused obvious opposition of the Theban priesthood, greatly enriched by contributions from the temple of Amun and the slave-owning aristocracy that got stronger as a result of military campaigns. These forces were actively opposed to Pharaoh. Pharaoh tended to narrow the scope of influence of Theban priesthood. He wanted to introduce a universal religious system that would meet the national interests. However, the reform was realized by Amenhotep's successor - Amenhotep IV. This pharaoh reformer finally broke with the traditional Egyptian polytheism and established the cult of the solar disk - Aton. Thus, many believe that he has betrayed the faith of his ancestors.
The reign of Pharaoh Akhnaten was characterized by the fact that at that time campaigns of conquest were not conducted, Egypt did not maintain the control over Palestine and Syria, the connections with Babylonia and other nations of the Middle East weaken. He did not pay attention to foreign policy. This Pharaoh was engaged enormous changes in the country. It was the religious reform. The absolute power of the pharaoh, which was a force in Egypt in other times, became its weakness. The Egyptian empire like never needed a powerful army and military victories in that period. Religious reform impacted on all sides of Egyptian life. The new image of a person was formed in art, namely in the images of the king, the queen and attendants to them. The charity, kindness, soft beauty and openness of the soul to the world of emotions highlighted in it.
The time of the New Kingdom and the Pharaoh Akhenaten's religious reform is one of the key events not only of ancient Egyptian history, but also the whole civilization of the ancient East. The attempt of approval the monotheistic nature of religion was undertaken almost for fifteen hundred years before the rise of Christianity. Processes can rightly be described as a religious revolution developing in ancient Egyptian state during the reign of the Pharaoh AkhnatenThe epic of Gilgamesh
The most important part of the Sumerian literature was a cycle of legends of Gilgamesh. It was the legendary king of the city of Uruk. The hero Gilgamesh was represented as the son of a mortal and a goddess Ninsun in the story. He traveled around the world to look for the secrets of immortality. Tradition of Gilgamesh and legends of the Deluge had a very strong influence on world literature and culture and the culture of neighboring nations that have adopted and adapted the legend to its national life
Akkadian poem was formed around a poem about the battle of Gilgamesh and Humbaba. Epic includes 11 tables in complete form. In the VIII century, the 12th table attached to this epos with the translation of the Sumerian legends of Gilgamesh and the Huluppu tree. Epic of Gilgamesh covers topics that were covered in the biblical Book of Ecclesiastes. These two books were characterized by attention to the problem of death, striving towards eternal life, the recognition of human limitations and incomprehensibility of the divine will, appeals to human obedience to the will of this, calls to search the opportunities of life, which given to the person above.
Thus, the mythological motifs that based on the religious beliefs of the Sumerians, and historical legends were the basis of the epic. Some people felt that Gilgamesh was a deity that protected people from demons, judge of the underworld. His image was placed at the entrance of their houses. Because it was thought that in this way it protected them from evil spirits. Epic of Gilgamesh is the creation of a poet, who not only joined together disparate Sumerian legends, epics, but carefully thought out and put together his famous material, giving the product a deep philosophical meaning.
Hammurabi is one of the most famous of all the rulers of ancient Mesopotamia. He became famous thanks to Hammurabi's Code, as well as by successful wars and campaigns, which allowed him to unite the whole territory of Mesopotamia under his control. Hammurabi is the sixth king of the first Babylonian dynasty.
King Hammurabi began his reign with the establishment of justice that consisted in the abolition of debts. During the reign of Hammurabi, there was a growth of commodity-money relations, the development of private farms and the strengthening of the slave trade. Babylon was a cultural and scientific center of the Near East. Many achievements of the ancient Babylonians came into modern life. For example, we divide the year into 12 months, an hour - on the minutes and seconds and the circle - 360 degrees following the Babylonian priests. The centralization of the state increased and the royal power strengthened too. Hammurabi was the author of the most famous collection of laws in the Ancient East. It was Hammurabi's Code. Hammurabi's Code gave enough adequate representation of the system of court proceedings. It was as the result of great work of the collection, compilation and systematization of legal norms of ancient Mesopotamia.
Hammurabi was unable to create a strong state. Babylonia suffered many heavy defeats by its neighbors and its ownership declined during the reign of his son Samsuiluny too. Despite this, Hammurabi achieved greater success than his predecessors or the kings of neighboring countries. He was the first of the ancient rulers, who hath tempered force of law to the king's power and conceded the right of the citizens to take care of their lives. Finally, Hammurabi offered people the image of God, establishing harmony between people.
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