Bullying can be defined as that behavior exhibited by children or adults that involves the use of superior strength amongst a group to intimidate others. Specifically, according to Monks & Coyne (2011), bullying happens when an individual in a group intends to force others to act or behave in ways that they (bullies) deem appropriate. As such, the presence of this superior strength and undue influence on others is what makes bullying inappropriate. Bulling in unwanted as it mostly involves aggression due to the power imbalance between two people or two groups of people. Additionally, the bullying behavior has a higher probability of being repeated over time (Monks & Coyne, 2011). Moreover, the people, especially children, who bully others as well as those who are bullied, have various problems that arise out of it. According to Gordon (2016), Incidences of bullying can occur between the students, staff as well as the parents. When most of the people think about bullying, the most common type that comes into their minds is physical bullying where kids punch, kick, and hit one another. However, Gordon (2016) states that physical bullying is just one of the various types of bullying. There exist other bullying types, which will be the subject of the following paragraphs.
The first types of bullying that will be explored and which is the most common is physical bullying. Thus happens when students through their physical actions gain some form of control and power over those who become targets of their bully (Gordon, 2016). In this regard, the physical bullies tend to have more strength and yield more power and aggression than their peers. According to Schneider et al. (2012), some main examples of physical bullying include kicking, slapping, shoving, hitting, punching and other forms of physical attacks. Despite their being other form of bullying, physical bullying is the most notable and easy to identify. As a result, most people think of this kind of bullying as it has historically received more attention and condemnation than the other forms.
Another most common type of bullying is verbal bullying. In this regard, this involves the use of words and statements as well as name-calling by the bully so s to take control of the target. In normal circumstances, verbal bullying would involve the bully using all forms of insults to the target with aim of belittling, demeaning, and eventually hurting that particular person (Schneider et al., 2012). The choice of the targets for bullying is dependent on their looks, actions and behaviors. As such, it is particularly the case that students with special needs are targeted. Research done on this area has shown that verbal bullying has far-reaching consequences n the target as it can lead to various emotional scares, which will be hard to heal (Gordon, 2016).
Cyberbullying is the other current and most exiting type of bullying existing between students and kids. Gordon (2016) states that this type of bullying involves the use of the internet maybe through a computer or a cellphone with the aim of harassing, threatening, or/and embarrassing a target individual or population. If this type of bulling involves adults, it is referred to as cyber harassment or cyberstalking (Schneider et al., 2012). Cyberbullying can come in many forms including, making threatens via the internet, posting hurtful images, and sending uncomfortable and hurtful emails and texts. Cyberbullying is growing amongst the youth who are glued into social media. As a result, bullies will harass other via the internet without a big possibility of being caught. The reason for cyberbullying is because those using the type cannot face the target and hence prefer to remain anonymous, insulated, and detached from their targets and the completely bullying situation (Gordon, 2016).
Social bullying forms the other type that exists between children and adults. In this regard, social bullying involves the bully using the relationships that they have with others to hurt them. Specifically, the bullies would exclude or ostracize an individual from a group of friends and spread rumors about that particular person with the knowledge that the rumors they are spreading are false and unsubstantiated. This silent treatment is comprised of propaganda and innuendos that are not in any way factual. The aim of the bullies in this case is to hurt the social life of that individual by tainting their image and reputation in bad light.
Sexual bullying is another type that has often been ignored but which has far-reaching impact on the target of the bully. In the view of Cheng et al. (2011), This bullying type includes the consistent repetition of harmful and humiliating actions that are intended to hurt a person sexually. These actions include sexual name-calling, vulgar gestures, the propositioning of sexually pornographic materials, unwanted sexually touching, crude comments, and other sexually embarrassing actions. An example of sexual bullying is when an individual looks at a woman and make a crude comments on the appearance, sexual development and activity, as well as the attractiveness of that particular person (Cheng et al., 2011). The women are mostly the victim of sexual bullying by being inappropriately touched, by either the males or their fellow females. The calling of names such as slut and tramp are also insulting, embarrassing, and thereby sexually bullying (Gordon, 2016).
Cheng, Y. Y., Chen, L. M., Ho, H. C., & Cheng, C. L. (2011). Definitions of school bullying in Taiwan: A comparison of multiple perspectives. School Psychology International, 32(3), 227-243.
Gordon, S. (2016). 6 Types of Bullying Parents Should Know About. Verywell. Retrieved 22 May 2016, from https://www.verywell.com/types-of-bullying-460491Monks, C. P., & Coyne, I. (Eds.). (2011). Bullying in different contexts. Cambridge University Press.
Schneider, S. K., O'Donnell, L., Stueve, A., & Coulter, R. W. (2012). Cyberbullying, school bullying, and psychological distress: A regional census of high school students. American Journal of Public Health, 102(1), 171-177.
Types of bullying | Kids Help Phone. (2016). Kidshelpphone.ca. Retrieved 22 May 2016, from http://www.kidshelpphone.ca/Kids/InfoBooth/Bullying/Types-of-Bullying.aspx
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