|Type of paper:||Annotated bibliography|
|Categories:||Society Child abuse Juvenile justice|
Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. Adolescence and emerging adulthood. Boston, MA: Pearson, 2014.
The book seems to be taking more about those in adolescent stage and those emerging to adulthood and the risky world that surrounds them. The authors, the how people at that stage can make their decisions, and it seems that they are not capable of making competent decisions on their own that is why most of them end up on the streets. They also tell about the gender stereotypes at adolescent stage thus making some of the youths of a certain gender to end up in the streets. There are also causes of conflicts between people at adolescent and their parents that makes them end up leaving their homes on the streets. Peer pressure, too much work at home, social media are regarded as the causes of young adults and children living on the streets.
APTEKAR, LEWIS. Street Children and Homeless Youth. Place of publication not identified: SPRINGER, 2016. Print. This book talks more about the youth who are homeless and live in the developed world and street children from the developing world. These people are referred as CSS that is children in street situation, and they display the problems that the children face and the situations in the streets including the children's original families and where they live, the children's mental health and social life. Other aspects explained in this book are public opinion construction about the street children, public demographics and the violent reactions they face from the authorities. There is also an explanation of the current research for children on the streets, their current situation and the programs and policies set to help those children. There are also recommendations for the policies and programs meant to change the lives of street children.
"Child Homelessness In U.S. Reaches Historic High, Report Says." Newsweek. N.p., 2018. Web. 18 Feb. 2018. The United States Newsweek paper gives a history of how the number of street children in different states has been increasing. The newspaper says that with only an increase of eight percent from 2012 to 2013, it led to a historical increase in the number of homeless children in the country. The director of the National Center on Family Homelessness Carmela DeCandia, tells the Newsweek, "As a nation of wealth and opportunity [one in 30 children] is not something we should tolerate." It also gives the cities and towns which have been most affected by homelessness of children and the causes of those children moving to the streets.
Crombach, Anselm, and Thomas Elbert. "The benefits of aggressive traits: A study with current and former street children in Burundi." Child Abuse & Neglect 38.6 (2014): 1041-1050. This is an international journal that explains the aggressive behavior found in street children and the youths, and it is mostly associated with maltreatment and violence in their homes. The authors say that aggressive behavior is often like a response for violence-imposed mental suffering. They also say that reactive aggression is related to PTSD positively while appetitive has a negative relation to PTSD. However, the journal explains that positive feelings faced through violence or cruel behaviors are great risk factors for the present aggressive behaviors thus there is a need for preventive strategy.
Embleton, Lonnie, et al. "The epidemiology of substance use among street children in resource-constrained settings: a systematic review and metaanalysis." Addiction 108.10 (2013): 1722-1733. The epidemiology of substance use among street children in resource-constrained settings: a systematic review and metaanalysis, is a journal that was published in July year 2013 with the aim of compiling and analyzing critically the information published about street children and their substance use in settings that are resource-constrained. The authors have done that by searching the literature systematically and by the use of procedures of meta-analysis so that they can synthesize literature. They have also used random effect model in the calculation of confidence interval to get the type of substance used in a certain geographical region by the street children in the area. The journal reveals the gaps in the literature that is outcomes of mental health, HIV and the deaths of street children that are related to substance use. In this journal, it is evident that street children who are from settings that are resource-strained have a high usage of lifetime substance. Moreover, they use inhalants predominantly followed by alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco.
Embleton, L., et al. "The Journey of Addiction: Barriers to and Facilitators of Drug Use Cessation among Street Children." (2013). This article is written with the aim of describing factors that may help the cessation of substance and drug usage that can be used in the intervention of substance used in a population. The authors of the article have done their study on children in Africa particularly in western Kenya by recruiting several street children and youths who would give them a clear picture of how these groups have been using drugs and substance. Their study has revealed the strength of inhalants addiction the double role played by family members in substance use and how several factors impede cessation. The article also tries to explain some of the factors that can be used to enhance cessation of drug and substance use by the youths and street children.
Glauser, Benno. "Street children." Constructing and reconstructing childhood: Contemporary issues in the sociological study of childhood (2015): 128. The book was written from a subject matter that arose from the problems faced by the street children in their day in day out life. It is explained that tough situations for the street children the feelings and problems that they face comes from their increased urge to take control of things on their behalf and that is discussed more of the street children in Paraguay, Asuncion. The number of street children has significantly risen, but this book has highlighted on research that sets the base of an education program meant for street children. However, they tell there have been difficulties in the education program especially for those children living in the streets. That means that in the reconstruction of the life of children on the streets needs a lot of care and professionalism due to even the brutality that they may have gathered from the harsh conditions on the streets.
Kamruzzaman, Md, and Md Abdul Hakim. "Prostitution Going Spiral: The Myth of Commercial Child Sex." Children 8 (2016): 9. This international journal of biomedical and clinical sciences explains more on how prostitution on the streets has turned to be a valid occupation. A study done in the journal aims at assessing the causes and effects of child sex in some places like south Asia which is used as sex trade in Bangladesh. It has been found that divorce and family wrangles, peers pressure and unemployment are the main causes of making a child move into the streets and engage in child commercial sex work. There is then a recommendation involving a collaboration of families and stakeholders to end the sorry tales.
Mona, P. K., and P. Sharma. "Health Problems of Street Children." Health Problems of Street Children is an Indian journal for psychological science that aims at examining the health problems that street children may be experiencing. That is done by examining the children's living pattern and the activities they engage. These street children are exposed to several diseases since they are subject to starving yet their bodies need a lot to maintain their growth, malnutrition, substance abuse, commercial sexual exploitation, theft, harassment by town police and physical or sexual abuse. The authors say that street children are at high risk of parasitic infestation, skin infections, respiratory diseases and other more chronic health problems. The cause of all that being the environment they live in which has underutilization of health services. Some governments like that of India that is according to this journal has set some correction measures concerning street children and has made a declaration that child labor is illegal.
Narayan, Sharma. "Preventing substance abuse among street children in India: a literature review." Health Science Journal 7.2 (2013). The journal gives a prevalence of the street children which is said to be increasing mostly in the developing world but at most in India. The purpose of the journal is to investigate the strategies that will be used in the prevention of substance use among the Indian street children. It explains the main reasons why people move to live in the streets of India which are peer pressure to use substance and poverty. It was found that most street children in the Indian streets use alcohol and nicotine. Substance abuse damages the body's vital organs thus causing chronic diseases in street children. Lastly, the journal gives programs on employment, empowerment, and equality which can be used to prevent street children and substance abuse all over India.
Rollins, Justin. Street Crhymes. , 2014. Internet resource. Street Crhymes is a book containing a collection of poems where the author is someone who spent some of his lifetime living on the streets in London. One of the poems' The Lost Boyz gives the writers brief autobiography that recognizes the landmarks. The poems show daily effects of the disadvantage, the tension of poverty and wealth, incarceration, and freedom that have a glimpse of a dark past sometimes, a current motivation and uncertain but having an optimistic future. The poem describes the snapshots of the crimes on the streets, pain, and survival and how the author passed through much that other children who had families who lived well with their families like living in the streets had them play with metal rails while other children played with cars. All that indicates the challenges that street child goes through, through the life of this author.
"Street Children - United States - USA." Gvnet.com. N.p., 2018. Web. 17 Feb. 2018. The article is from the United States and talks more about the forgotten American children especially those living on the streets. They say that most of these children have run out of their homes while still there is a percentage that has been abandoned by their foster families or is forced of their original homes. The article says that the number of street children in the United States has increased and currently it is over 1.3 million homeless children. All the street children especially the runaways do not realize the dangers of being in the streets and the article explains that they get involved in drugs usage, pornography or theft which puts them at high risk of losing their lives easily.
Tandjung, Herman. "HOMELESSNESS IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: THE CAUSES AND THE ALLEVIATION." Academia.edu. N.p., 2018. Web. 17 Feb. 2018. This article discusses about the poverty that is displayed in the US despite it being a rich country. There are still some citizens who are homeless and suffer from extreme poverty according to the article. The research done by the authors of this article has aimed at identifying causes of this poverty and the solutions that can be applied to eliminate it. The approach used in this case by the authors is social, economic and political theories. Causes of homelessness are for economic that is poverty, the social factor that is a mental disorder and substance abuse political factor that is lack of governmental social policies to eradicate homelessness and cultural factor that is due to lack of practicing the system of extended family. The article suggests a long-term program to end homelessness, especially for children.
Timmer, Susan, and Anthony J. Urquiza. Evidence-based Approache...
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