Public Relation: A value-driven management process to enhance the relationship between the public and organizations associated with the desired success of the firm.
Public Relation Process: It is a dynamic process that involves; Research (the gathering relevant information related to client, environment, and stakeholders) Planning (the setting of goals, objectives, and strategies that will be used to bring change) Communication (transforming the strategies to real actions) Evaluation (the measuring of the actions to determine what was done based on set objectives)
Communication Channels can be either Controlled (practitioner determines the form, timing, and placement) or Uncontrolled (delivery of message under someones control)
Settings of public relations include agencies, corporations, government, and independent consultants
Responsibility of practitioners: targeting the message, managing stakeholder relationships, planning and creating communication, interpreting and translating changes in environment
Roles of Public Relations in organizations: Press-agentry and publicity, public information modeling, focusing on persuasion, conflict resolution
Major trends in PR: Growth of women in workplace and ethnic diversity
Analyzing Case Study
Case Study Element Definition Measurement Factors
Inputs Time, energy, and resources for strategy implementation Objectives/based on research, nature of plan (ad hoc or standing), quality of planning, degree of consensus
Outputs Specific actions during execution Message clarity, delivery processes, quality f tactics, resource management
Outcomes Measure of reached targets Level of objective and tactic achievement, appropriateness of measures, unintended effects, impact on relationship, future course action
Relationship Components: control mutuality, trust, satisfaction, commitment, exchange relationship, and communal relationship
RECAP Process: analyze cases by examining the research methodology in relation to key publics, stakeholders, outcomes, targeted message, communication structure, and degree of success
Employee relations: it is a branch of public relation, which deals with building productive relationships among employees within the organization.
Most of the managers rate themselves as truthful in businesses and more likely to discuss organizational goals, while employees are less loyal in business and more likely to believe in grapevine.
Effective employee relation has 300% better ROI to stockholders and reduces costs of recruiting and training.
Employee publics can be diverse as the population itself, for instance, in the United States where family, job security, and benefits are major concerns.
Elements of subdivision in employee public include; age, salary, and longevity. However, some surveys suggest that employees moral is high due to uncertainties in economy that makes them glad to have a job.
Achieving an effective employee communications aids in solving issues of trust and profitability. Such a move can be achieved by ensuring that the management fully believes in the employee relation effectively. Instances of soliciting employee feedback are important for organizations morale. Therefore, conducting a communication audit can assist to instill efficacy.
Traditional employee relation tactics involve; face-to-face meetings with supervisors, e-mails, videos, intranets, special events, newsletters, and magazines.
Regarding values and visions; studies shows that employees want to trust the company though not certain if they do, further, if they trust the organization, employees become efficient in achieving goals and profits.
Wachovias Case Study
A case study analysis conducted by Wachovia between 1999 and 2003, on extensive employee survey, to measure satisfaction and emerging issues. The First Union created a project to study diversity and commitment in two companies to yield a diversified workforce.
The research identified primary public where working mothers at Wachovia suggested that the company had different targets for the diversity program.
The desired outcome of the survey was a central goal that combines Wachovias employee relations that was to help in employee co-ordination.
Finally, Wachovias team established these three objectives; to continue the commitment to diversity by focusing on valuing differences and creation of inclusive workplace; to build on the best diversity practices of the First Union and Wachovia and to ensure that all employees feel the positive impact of the diversity commitment.
Investor relation; are strategic management responsibilities that integrate finance, communication, and marketing to achieve a two-way information flow enabling fair and effective capital markets.
The public company involves selling stock to investors (stockholders/shareholders).
IR regulations differ with countries, though professional associations have a code of ethics that governs the action of its members.
Examples of publics in investor relation include; individual investors (one-half of adults in US own stock in public companies); institutional investors (such as employee retirement systems); mutual fund managers (these individuals buy large volumes of stock); securities analysts (work in brokerage houses); financial news media (Street Journals, CNBC-TV and valueLine.com); employees and official regulators.
Investor Relation Tactics:
Annual meetings and reports
Newsletters, magazines, and personal letters
Websites, webcasts and conference calls
News releases and media kits They are recommended by law and are used in discussing current issues and future goals.
Maintains a regular communication between investors and key publics.
A popular tool for reaching out to key publics.
Together with disclosure requirements are considered fact-laden and devoid of hyperbole used by regulation.
Federal law prohibits insider trading, stock transactions to ensure fairness in security markets. Also, new regulations like Regulation Fair Disclosure and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act offer turbulences in IR.
Different opinions exist concerning the IR and PR that makes investor relations to be framed as names like financial relations or financial public relations.
IR is a demanding but rewarding career that offers a practitioner an opportunity to utilize skills on critical thinking.
Case Study (KCSA)
The study used KCSA interviewing as a primary method to identify problems, opportunities, solutions, and values. Secondary research done by SEC filing provided financial health and direction of company.
Key publics were identified, that is, individual, institutional and potential investors, and were concerned with the stability and growth of the company.
The plan sought in stabilizing the value of the companys stock, so as to articulate the outcomes through the creation of awareness and establishing managements credibility.
The targeted message we are stable, growing and diverse the company with sound business strategies was sent out to suggest companys bright future.
Media relations; journalists play an important role in free societies that makes journalism a big business. Therefore, good media relations can be an act of self-preservation and valuable asset.
Elements of news include; if the story affects a big portion of reporters audience; if it is happening now or about to happen; if the story is unusual to the audience; or if it involves someone the audience recognizes.
Media relation tactics:
Video news releases
News conferences and special events It is the most used and often misused.
Cannot have a promotional tone.
Explains who, what, where, when, why and how of an event.
Encourages coverage of stories that lack hard news edge.
Package of information given to journalists in writing complex stories.
Contains backgrounders and facts sheets.
Provided by public relation practitioners used by the television station.
The audio version of a VNR used in radio broadcasters.
Designed to generate news coverage.
Media relations has key considerations that comprise; being cool, being prepared, never lie, never stipulate, being present in good and bad times, being accurate, burden of context, and should not go off the record.
Case Study (Talking Trash)
Most significant research occurred prior to the creation of a formal planning process, while secondary research from other states programs identified the audience.
A statewide telephone survey identified attitudes and effectiveness of an earlier campaign, while a post-campaign survey measured aided and unaided recall of ODOTs anti-litter efforts.
Primary publics were rural young males (primary litter offenders), young people under (likely offenders), and visitors and potential visitors (not directly targeted).
Intervening publics were the elementary school students, educators, and the Oklahomas news media (third party endorsement).
The desired outcome of the campaign was to reduce roadside litter and behavior change of the affected, as well as, generate calls to the antilittering hotline. Therefore, it was designed to generate publicity and gain co-operation of educators.
The targeted message Keep Our Land Grand was a key motivator identified in the research. Such efforts were successful as suggested by the February 2000 survey. Others messages clearly aimed at school-age children.
Appropriate media and tactics were involved in communication. For instance, the young rural males used litter ranger, young people bore peer pressure. Exposure was also done by advertising, publicity, social events and educators.
Communities can be defined in multiple ways; geographic (where people live, work and play); demographic (where people share common non-attitudinal attributes); psychographic (where people share similar philosophies or lifestyle attitudes); virtual (where people build relationships and share common interests via the internet).
Community relations matters based on resource dependence theory (no individual/organization is entirely self-sufficient and must rely on the goodwill and/or resources of others).
Community relations involve many different players sitting at the table with each having a resource that can help or hurt the organization in achieving goals.
Co-orientation is the analysis of a dynamic mix of interests in communal relations.
Community relation tactics often target special publics or groups with a common interest such as inward and outward special publics, and coalitions.
Cultural diversity has made community characteristics to constantly evolve, for instance, the US has become increasingly diverse due to its demographic composition.
Key considerations like conducting stakeholder research, picking partners carefully, mirroring the community, remembering employee ambassadors, defining organizations priorities and thinking long-term are important in community relations.
Case study (Colorado)
The Colorado department of natural resources made excellent use of primary and secondary research in the identification of problems, opportunities and values. The Great Outdoor Colorado study gave a snapshot of the attitudes and pre-disposition on state parks.
Key primary publics were identified such as Colorado residents, current and potential volunteers, state legislators.
Intervening publics were also identified, for instance, The Colorado Trail Community (private and public organizations), and news media that focused on publicity.
Objectives of the study were clearly articulated, however, no evidence of quantification prior to execution of strategies and tactics.
Consumer relations; the...
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