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The animal cells and plant cells are similar because they are both eukaryotic. Both cells possess nucleus that houses the DNA, which is separated from other cellular structures by the nuclear membrane. In fact, both the cells have the similar processes of the cell division, the mitosis and meiosis. Although the overall function of both the plant cell and the animal cell is the same, there are some critical differences between these two types of cells. The differences in the physiological processes present in plant and animal cells constitute the differences in the function of specific cell structures found even in both the cell types (Allen & Cowling, 2011). Notably, the structure and functions of the animals' organ and organ systems are considered within the contexts of circulation, respiration, nervous systems, endocrine systems, excretion, nutrition, and the developmental biology. On the other hand, the plant cells functions focus on the photosynthesis, cell walls, anatomy, flowering and growth.
The plant cells have chloroplasts. These cell structures contain the green pigments known as the chlorophyll. The chlorophyll captures the light energy from the sun to facilitate the chemical reactions that lead to the process of photosynthesis (Allen & Cowling, 2011). In doing this, a series of chemical reactions takes place that converts the light energy to the ATP energy that is usable by plants. The presence of the cell wall structure in the plant cells further constitutes the differences in the functions between the plant and animal cells. Notably, the cellulose cells walls play the crucial role in giving the plant cell its shapes, and the support to the plant (Allen & Cowling, 2011). Because of its rigidness, it does not permit any materials into the plant cells. It means that the cells must have tiny openings between cells to allow the movement of materials thereby enhancing the physiological processes such as osmosis and diffusion of elements and mineral uptake. The absence of cell walls in the animal cells does not mean that the cells are not supported in any way. In fact, the cells of the animal secret a mix of glycoproteins which is similar to the fibrous collagen protein that is found in the human tendons and ligaments. This structure surrounds the animal cells to form a highly protective surface. A complex mixture of molecules creates a web that is attached to the exoskeleton of the animal cell.
Contrary to the plant cells, the matrix is not a cell wall, which is seen as a long and thick structure in plants. Besides, the animal cells have cell structures such as lysosomes and centrioles. Based on the fact that animals exhibit the process of digestion, they possess lysosomes that contain enzymes that can digest cellular macromolecules. Additionally, the centrioles, on the other hand, organise the assembly of microtubules during cell division.
Finally, the presence of the large vacuole in the plant cells provides a more significant distinction between the function of the plant cells and that of the animals' cells despite both being eukaryotic. Notably, the cell vacuoles are characterised by its ability to stretch depending on the content as well as the amount of the substances that come into the cell. The large vacuole is filled with water and various solutes. The content and the pressure within the cell vacuoles play a crucial role in ensuring that the cell wall is turgid.
Explain how a single organism can utilise a single set of DNA to construct various types of tissue.
The eukaryotes, the organisms with the entire membrane bounding the cell contents. The synthesis of the tissues in the body of eukaryotes requires varied tissues combination. The synthesis of the gene which determines the tissues in plants is carried out through the protein synthesis. The DNA upon the instruction of the Ribonucleic Acid messenger transfers the genes from nucleotide in the parents to the nucleotide in the daughter's strands (Plopper, 2014). On the other hand, the nitrogenous base known as the adenine, thymine, cytosine and the guanine transfer the genetically materials which later determines the nature and the type of the organelle formed (Young, 2010). Imperatively, the genes which determine the formation of the cell organelles are located on the double helix stands transferred during the protein synthesis.
These sets of amino acids determine the body morphology and the necessary structural appearance and functions of the cell organelle (Plopper, 2014). A Single gene contains the Deoxyribonucleic Acid which defines the properties located on the subsequent daughter cells, and the synthesis is therefore based on the replication of a gene during gametogenesis. The gene in double helix stands unzips, and the gene undergoes duplication. The process takes place rapidly, and the gene forms a template on the other blank template in the daughter cells (Young, 2010). During the transfer of these genes, the thymine is often replaced by another nitrogenous base known as the Uracil. Upon the duplication of this gene, the cell division precedes which later undergoes series of differentiation and modifications to form the different organelles.
Allen, T. D., & Cowling, G. (2011). The cell: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Plopper, G. (2014). Principles of Cell Biology. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.
Young, J. K. (2010). Introduction to cell biology. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific.
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