Free Essay Comprising Background Information on Human and Sex Trafficking

Published: 2022-02-16
Free Essay Comprising Background Information on Human and Sex Trafficking
Type of paper:  Thesis
Categories:  Sexual assault Human trafficking
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1747 words
15 min read

Human trafficking consists of recruiting, transportation and harboring of people with an aim of exploitation through forced work, coercion or deception and violence against their will (Mandel, 2013). Human trafficking can also be seen as an act of enslaving people, deception or coercing them (confining them) into a situation which does not offer any freedom for exploitation. People are trafficked for reason such as; forced labor, forced prostitution, forced organ removal, forced marriage, domestic servitude, forced criminal, forced begging among other reasons (Mandel, 2013). Human trafficking does not necessarily mean crossing people across international borders but even moving them without their will for the aim of exploitation. For the cases where young people are involved, coercion or violence may not be included through exploiting them defines trafficking (Mandel, 2013).

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Much emphasis is put on sexual exploitation. Majority of people get into traps concerning labor exploitation (Mandel, 2013). The potential traffickers make false promises on job availabilities abroad, this causes unnecessary borrowing from their potential employees. On getting abroad, the victims realize the applied work no longer exists (Mandel, 2013). This results in their exploitation. According to the most current statistics by the Human rights act, 51% of the trafficking victims were women, 28% were children while men consisted of 21% only. Among the women who were victims of trafficking 72% were being exploited in the sex industry (Mandel, 2013). Most traffickers were men constituting of 63% against 37% women traffickers (Logan et al. 2008).

Sex trafficking

According to the government of the United States definition given in the headline "The Face of Modern Slavery", sex trafficking can be defined as follows:

Sex trafficking happens when a victim is maintained into sexual exploitation after consenting utilizing deception, force or coercion. Given the above circumstances, any unlawful harboring, provision, transporting or recruiting people for such purposes render the perpetrator responsible for trafficking. Sex trafficking may also occur when girls and women are tied on debt bondage as they are forced to continue with prostitution (Mandel, 2013). The debts are as a result of unlawful trafficking process involved which the traffickers insist must be repaid through prostitution. The individual's initial consent in prostitution participation is not legal determination (Mandel, 2013). If an individual is held in service through psychological force or psychological manipulation, such person should be given the benefits stated in Palermo protocol as well as the domestic laws.

Child sex trafficking - happens when persons under 18 years of age are induced to commercial sex proving coercion, fraud or force against their will makes it unnecessary to be considered human trafficking. The rule governing children does not allow for an exemption for socioeconomic or cultural rationalization should hinder children being rescued from sexual exploitation (Mandel, 2013). Using children in commercial sex activities is highly prohibited by the United States law as well as most countries across the globe.

Sex trafficking causes both deaths, social ostracism, malnutrition, unwanted pregnancy, drug addiction, diseases such as HIV and AIDS, psychological trauma and long-lasting physical effects (Mandel, 2013). According to Jennifer Mandel, "Tulane Journal of International Comparative Law", stated concerning sex trafficking that: "Girls and women are forced to continue with prostitution through the use of unlawful debts incurred through crude sell recruitment or transportation."

Factors affecting sex trafficking

The various factors contributing to human trafficking are diverse depending on the country. Sex trafficking is a complicated scenario influenced by, cultural, economic, social and other factors (Kotrla, 2010). Some of the factors are known to the trafficker's history of trafficking as well as the various states in which they take place. Some of the factors are local issues such as insecurity, unequal distribution of social and economic activities, and lack of human rights, oppression, and poverty. The existence of social imbalance between countries causes immigration into wealthy countries (Kotrla, 2010). The rapid growth of developed countries promotes sex trafficking across the USA borders from neighboring countries. Factors such as political war, civil wars, and other related factors act as a push factor towards sex trafficking. This results due to massive human displacement associated with such factors. Women and young girls become vulnerable hence easily become sex victims (Kotrla, 2010). Puling factors such as wealth and social class attract more traffickers to engage in the sex trafficking business.

Sex trafficking demand

Three pillars of sex trafficking exist globally, these include traffickers (sellers), johns (consumers) and the victims (products). As economics suggests, products are among the most crucial thing in market survival. Without service demand, no market would exist for trafficking sex workers. Demand acts as a push factor in the illegal sex trafficking business (Kotrla, 2010). Demand in sex trafficking results predominantly from men though both genders are involved. Men are the core source of demand as they seek on purchasing sexual entertainment. Most sex workers are subject to fraud, force or even the teenage being involved in commercial sex (Kotrla, 2010). Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) released in 2000 (Barbara, 2017). The sex demand publication cause sex trade all over the world.

The Functions of Demand in Sex Trafficking

The sex trafficking of the individual is triggered by the need for the menu of commercial sex actions they are required "package" and how they are performed (Clawson, 2006). Traffickers transfer victim-products market, helping and facilitating other actors in a myriad of means. As the demand rise, traffickers are supposed to increase the supply of targets (Clawson, 2006). The buyers in the market points see the victims as a desensitized product for an immediately feedings and disposal. If buyers did not require finding a commercial sexual amenity, then definitely the trafficking will stop to be a profitable venture. Much more like a genuine market, demand, and supply for commercial sexual are connected (Clawson, 2006). The supply of children and women in the sex industry acts as the fuel for this lawful slavery trading and must rise to meet the required development for sexual services throughout the globe (Logan et al. 2008). Demand distresses the market system and the kind of goods made available.

Evidence shows that the rapid increase of the younger growing generation, signing feedback to the buyers' opinions the younger affected person is both vulnerable and healthier (Barbara, 2017). This need for sex with the fresher girls has to turn out to a wide number of juveniles misused through prostitution around the world - per sex act trafficking persons under the U.N Conventions and the United States federal trafficking law (Barbara, 2017). Commercial sex is an extremely elastic product. In organization terms, these ways that if the price of the service or object rises, the customer demand will increase. By enriching risk to traffickers, the price of the services will be increased thus providing a resultant decrease demand and also a diminishing profit (Barbara, 2017). The profit will be also being lowered if heavy charges and seizure of properties are imposed on condemned trafficker (Barbara, 2017).

World sex trafficking statistics

Sex trafficking is global problems that may take diverse forms, the most prolific form is the USA prostitution sex industry. Over the years, the police have made several attempts to stop sex traffickings such as arresting the major cartels and sex traffickers (Barbara, 2017). According to the police report on sex trafficking, most women and girls are recruited in massage parlors where they are exploited. Though the exact number of sex trafficking is unknown, recent reports analysis shows that as many as 9000 illicit spas in the USA alone are associated with the illegal sex trade (Barbara, 2017). According to the United Nations report, the International Labour Organization released in 2016, an estimate of 3.8 million adults and 1million children were forced sexual exploitation victims globally (Shelley, 2016). Among the victims, women and girls constituted to about 99%. The statistics show that women and girls are the most prevalent. The international labor organization estimated the female being exploited sexually to amount to 99% of the total population affected (Shelley, 2016).

International Labour report shows that; over 70% of sex trafficking victims were from the Pacific and Asia regions. Only 14% of the total cases were from Europe and Central Asia and 4% from America (Shelley, 2016). The research conducted on illicit massage parlors within the United States shows that most of the victims are china residents. The report obtained noted that Fujian province from southern China reports the most cases of sex victims as well as South Korea. In U.S. runways, 1 of 7 victims of sex trafficking is a child (Shelley, 2016). In the United States, most sex trafficking victims comprise of female immigrants though some American citizens are as well affected. According to the National Centre for Missing and Exploited Children reports that in 23,500 reported runaways, 1 in 7 is most likely to be a victim of child trafficking (Shelley, 2016).

The most recent report from the International Labour Organization, over 99 billion dollars profit is gained from sexual labor (PsycEXTRA Dataset, 2008). Two-thirds of the total gained profit comes from commercial sex as opposed to forced labor. Further analysis showed that forced labor accounted for the most profit compared to domestic work. it was realized that more profit per victim is gained from sex trafficking in developed countries. Despite Asia having the highest number of sex trafficking victims, annual profits gained per victim is high only in developed countries since a larger stake is given for the act. An estimate of 80, 000 dollars in developed countries like the United States compared to 55,000 dollars in Middle East countries as per the International Labor Organizations report was made.

Abuse on sex trafficking immigrant victims

Most women have trafficked across the international borders especially the United States border. Due to situations happening in their countries, they are forced to flee in search of better wages and other economic issues (Heffron, 2018). Some of the factors which may contribute to the mass movement of individuals from their countries to foreign countries include:

Presence of natural calamities such as droughts, hurricanes, tsunamis, earthquakes (Heffron, 2018).

Human factors as inter-country wars, civil war, and other related issues ((Heffron, 2018).

Economic factors as, search for jobs, search for high wages and other equivalent causes (Heffron, 2018).

In whatever factor from the ones discussed above cause people to migrate. Traffickers on the other side use their vulnerability to exploit the immigrants. The most affected group include women and girls. Taking an example of the number of immigrants into the United States, 80% percent are vulnerable migrants who are in search of jobs or seeking refuge. The highest number of women and girls sex trafficking number of the total victims consists of the immigrant. Most immigrant women and girls are subjected to violence or coercion and forcefully made to get involved in prostitution activities (Heffron, 2018). others get forced into sexual assaults following claims of the...

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