Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a brain disorder that is characterized by the presence of problems inattentiveness, control of impulse as well as over-activity. The disorder is most prevalent in children and as such, its symptoms exhibit themselves to a degree that seems inappropriate considering the development level and age (Buttross, 2007). These symptoms impede their impulses, limits their capacity to pay attention and confines their movement as well. For this reason, their disorder may be misdiagnosed as a behavioral problem, and instead, viewed as childrens intentional noncompliance (Goodwin, 2010). The symptoms of this disorder, therefore, creates problems for these children both at home and school. This research is a case study of a six-year-old boy who is suffering from ADHD, which describes his condition, diagnosis a treatment plan and recommends medications for the patient based on the DSM-IV-TR treatment manual.
The purpose of this paper is to present a case study of a young student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. This case study will focus on a six-year-old boy who has been diagnosed with this disorder. The study is structured to examine a single child, in particular, intended to offer a wealth of valuable information that may lead to better comprehension of the ADHD disorder. This is with regards to the learning experience as well as the patterns of behavior among children diagnosed with the same disorder. Therefore, the primary characteristic of the child will be examined to determine the actual impact of the disorder on the child.
In addition, the focus of the study will be to acquire expounded acquaintance and a deeper apprehension of ADHD on an individual. This added knowledge concerning the behavioral symptoms will offer the opportunity to understand the six-year-old boy properly and how he is currently affected by the symptoms. This way, it will be possible to develop practical interventions that are specific to the patient. Therefore, the data that will be obtained from this case study coupled with the available literature information about ADHD will provide a foundation for developing an intervention model. This may be in terms of establishing a special environment for developing a treatment plan for kids affected by ADHD.
ADHD is a study that is mostly concerned with a group of behaviors that normally occurs together. Therefore, its diagnosis necessitates conduction of a behavioral assessment, which makes use of varying methods collecting information. This includes informants as well as techniques like interviews, observations and ratings. This multi-approach technique to assessment is vital as each of the informants will provide unique information concerning the childs behavior. The information then aids in making composite judgments. In addition, these extensive sources of data provide adequate information for comparison thereby creating a more reliable database of information. This section will be subdivided into three parts. The parts include the case study (ADHD Child), research design and methodology, and the instruments used.
Samuel is the seven-year-old child who is exhibiting the primary symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. He was an active 1st-grade student who attended school in an affluent district. He is the youngest child in a family of four, having a twelve-year-old sister in the 6th grade. It was when Samuel started exhibiting the characteristics of ADHD at the beginning of last year that his parents decide to move him to a primary learning disability school. This was before he had been diagnosed with ADHD. For the past year, he had been enrolled in the learning disability school, where he has frequently shown signs of inattention, hyperactivity as well as impulsive behaviors. Further assessment and examination ascertained that Samuel displayed symptoms of ADHD. This makes him a viable candidate for this case study.
Samuels Mother was the main informant for the study. This is because his father abandoned them a few months after he was born. His mother was tasked with the responsibility of raising him on her own together with his older sister. She proved useful in providing background information about his development since an early age. She had also been in close contact with the Samuels teacher from the disability school throughout the year. In addition, she was eager to converse about Samuels condition as she needed all the help or information she could get on how to help her son. She was frustrated given her concerns on Samuels future with her being a single mother.
His classroom teacher at the disability school where he was admitted into also provided useful data pertaining Samuels behavior. This was imperative in identifying the relationship between Samuels condition and his learning abilities. Also, the classroom teacher was in a good position to elaborate on Samuels educational experiences that further expounded on his potential and classroom interactions. Since the classroom teacher was in constant contact with Samuel while in the disability school, he would shed light on Samuels observable social relationships at school with his peers. His thoughts about Samuels struggles in the learning environment would offer a comprehensive understanding of the affected child in the perspective of a trained professional in psychology.
Research Design and Methodology
The research was carried out by Samuels teacher who was also a psychology doctor assigned to him when he joined the disability school. The professional employed the following method when diagnosing Samuels condition.
This is a qualitative method of research that studies the culture which is shared among a group of people. It is preferably known as observational research since the main feature of this method is that it involves a researchers continuous observation or interaction with the subject or patient. However, the observatory role is concealed from the subject. This type of research is usually carried out through several months thereby providing a longitudinal take. The method is apt in this case because it paints a complete picture of the subject of study. The deductions, as well as theories that are established through this research, are exclusively developed through observational data collected in a natural environment.
An interview is a method of research that typically involves a verbal conversation between two people for purposes of gathering relevant data for a specified study. It is a method that proves useful because it offers the opportunity to collect information about someones experiences or observations. In this case, the researcher interviewed Samuels mother regarding her own observations and experiences from the time he was born. These observations would be in terms of how he behaves during natal care and his interactions at an early age. This information offers relevant background information about the subject which cannot be obtained by other methods.
Findings and Results
The interview with Samuels mother revealed relevant facts about his childhood. She reported to have had an easy pregnancy but experienced a little difficulty during delivery. She also revealed that as an infant, Samuel could not easily be attended to especially during the first eleven months. He was very stubborn when being fed and would cry for hours in the absence of his mother. The child also had an unusual sleeping pattern. He was enrolled in a pre-school training program at the age of four where he did not manifest any challenges in learning.
However, it was when he joined kindergarten at the age of five that he began experiencing learning problems. He also developed great difficulties in getting along with other children. His mother revealed that he had a problem with language as well as tardy motor skills, which made it difficult for him to use crayons or even a pencil in writing and drawing. She reported having sought help from a professional counselor to help Samuel overcome his learning difficulties. It is at this time that she was told that her son might be suffering from ADHD.
Classroom Teachers Report
The report that was prepared by Samuels classroom teacher in the disability school also revealed valuable information pertaining Samuels everyday school life and social interactions. From the report, it was evident that Samuel had unhealthy interactions with his age mates as his main agenda was playing as opposed to developing personal relationships. Whenever Samuel set out in his mind to do something, it proved very difficult to explain to him why he may, was not, or couldnt be allowed to do the phenomenon. This was unless force was used. Samuel also manifested a problem when interacting with adults. This is because he treated the adults as his peers and occasionally even wanted to play with them. From this report, the teacher also deducted that Samuel exhibited symptoms consistent with those of ADHD.
From the research, it was evident that Samuels mother was not aware that his son had ADHD at a young age. This supports the fact that most parents are unable to identify ADHD symptoms in their young children. The results of the research portrayed that Samuel possessed uneven, intellectual development, accompanied by reasoning inability. His elevated desire to play, irregular peer interaction, as well as his classroom behavior, indicated his hyperactivity and inattentiveness. In addition, the findings of the research revealed from his mother during the interview further supported the findings that Samuel demonstrated a learning disability. His motor speed as well has his verbal perception were also inadequate. All these complications negatively affected his performance in school, his social skills as well as his emotional status. They were also significant symptoms of ADHD.
From the mother's interview, it is evident that there is very little understanding of ADHD as a disorder affecting children. In this context, Samuel manifested socialization and learning challenges at a tender age. Nevertheless, despite her mothers involvement in his life, she did not suspect that her son might be suffering from ADHD condition. It is not until she sought the assistance of a professional counselor, did she identify ADHD as the primary cause of her sons challenges. The implication of this revelation shows that numerous children in different parts of the world suffer from ADHD but lack vital assistance to solve the problem. This is primarily due to their parents lack of knowledge of identifying ADHD symptoms.
The DSM-IV-TR treatment manual by the American Psychiatric Association clearly presents evidence regarding the severity of Samuels condition. The DSM-IV-TR system offers the best current evidence as criteria for treatment of ADHD especially in children (Dziegielewski, 2013). Medications are supported as the first-line treatment for ADHD. However, in this case, a child aged six should be prescribed with medications that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration of the United States. Such medications should also be administered concurrently with behavior therapy administered by the teacher or parent.
The best medication as recommended by the DSM-IV-TR treatment manual involves the use of stimulants such as Ritalin or Concerta. Both of these drugs are Methylphenidate-based. Adderall, which is amphetamine based, is also an effective stimulant in the treatment of ADHD. These medications must, however, be administered under the watch of a medical practitioner who has a comprehensive understandin...
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