Essay Sample on Occupation Exposure to Toxins and its Regulation

Published: 2023-02-10
Essay Sample on Occupation Exposure to Toxins and its Regulation
Type of paper:  Research paper
Categories:  Human resources Ecology Cancer Healthcare Pollution
Pages: 4
Wordcount: 958 words
8 min read

The term Threshold Limit Value describes exposure standards for typical industrial workers without risking adverse health implications. The guidelines are established by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) to facilitate decisions concerning safe exposure levels to occupational hazards (Lynch & Goodman, 2018). The risk factors are generated through peer review of scientific literature by public health experts. The annually published values are, therefore based on existing human and animal exposure studies. The primary goal of these limiting values is minimizing the exposure of workers to unsafe concentrations at all cost.

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Being a flexible and independent agency, the ACGIH rapidly incorporates advanced data. It is efficient in operations due to its freedom from the government's bureaucratic restrictions. The Threshold limit value represents partial units per million (ppm). The expression of concentration of chemicals forming dust or fine particles is in milligrams for each cubic meter. TLV provides an acceptable level of air constituent for inhalation within forty hours of industrial work (Silverstein, 2018). Regulatory measures, including air sampling and therapeutic monitoring, are recommended upon exceeding the standard limit.

The ACGIH outlines three categories of different threshold limits. Time-weighted average defines the tolerable concentration of harmful constituents in the air over an average of forty hours workweek in a worker's lifetime. It describes the standard for repeated hazard exposure throughout the typical eight working hours without adverse health effects (Lynch & Goodman, 2018). It is the most frequently applied standard.

The exposure to concentrations amid short-term exposure limit and time-weighted average limit should not exceed four instances in a day. A sixty-minute interlude is mandatory. The main distinction between the two thresholds, therefore, is the average recommended duration for exposure. While the exposure limit for TLV-TWA is eight working hours per day, TLV-STEL forms its basis on an average of fifteen minutes without exceeding four occurrences. TLV-STEL supplements the eight-hour average limit in situations with recognized severe effects from chronic hazardous substances.

TLV Ceiling describes the composition that industries should not exceed at any point of exposure while working. Attaining the value is prohibited at any given instant. Unlike TLV-STEL and TLV-TWA that recommend a maximum duration for exposure, TLV-C completely restricts disclosure. Employees should not be exposed to the value limit at all.

Biological exposure indices (BEI) are guiding values for the assessment of biological monitoring outcomes. A BEI is a directory chemical which appears in contaminated air or biological fluids resulting from the exposure of industrial chemicals (Tsunoda, 2016). Monitoring markers include actual chemicals or degradation products, and their concentration indicates exposure. Biological exposure indices are complementary to industrial air monitoring since they verify air constituents and act as a warning. Their basis is upon individuals' exposure data that reveals the connection between the element's biotic levels, exposure intensity, and worker's health implications.

The term (IDLH) Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health describes air concentration standards utilized in respirator selection. The values, created by the National Institute for Occupational Safety, illustrate high-risk conditions or concentrations for exposure. IDLH values ensure the escape of workers from polluted environments whenever the respiratory protection apparatus fails. It also indicates extreme levels that require extremely dependable breathing equipment to provide maximum protection of workers.

ALARA is an abbreviation for the expression "As Low as Reasonably Achievable" utilized regarding radiation or chemical levels of exposure. The principle aims at maintaining radiation or other hazard exposure levels to a minimum below the supervisory limits (Silverstein, 2018). The approach assumes that any form of exposure to radiation conveys a linear risk whereby an increase in exposure intensifies the risk of adverse health impacts. It involves adopting reasonable techniques to minimize the official release of radioactive substances to the environment.

Xylene is introduced to the body through different routes during the use and consequently expose the user to harm. The exposure of Xylene at above 100ppm through an 8-hour shift is detrimental to health and exacerbates seizures (Niaz & Bahadar, 2015). Its short-term exposure limit (STEL) is 150ppm. The substance contaminates the by 80% and industrial workers who fail to adopt protective measures inhale considerable amounts. The skin is another route of entry, and the safety data sheet requires the user to protect the hands and skin against contact with the chemical. The eyes are also susceptible to effects of the virus ad provide a route of entry for the toxin.

The inhalation of the product's vapor in high concentrations can result in headache, fatigue, dizziness, and nausea. When the skin is exposed to the toxin frequently or for prolonged periods, the result is the development of inflammation that presents as redness, itching, eczema, and skin cracking. Eyes are sensitive to the effects of the toxin and respond by redness, irritation, and pain. Ingestion of this compound has a severe impact on the user as it results in corrosion of the gastrointestinal tract (Niaz & Bahadar, 2015). It affects the mouth and throat in the transmission to one's stomach. Once absorbed, the toxin causes intoxication, nausea, headache, and dizziness.

However, the toxin does not have a direct effect on the causation of cancer. The chemical does not cause any carcinogenicity or contribute to mutation of the user's DNA and therefore does not predispose to cancer.


Lynch, H., & Goodman, J. E. (2018). Critique of the ACGIH 2016 derivation of threshold limit values. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 189-196.

Niaz, K., Bahadar, H. (2015). A review of environmental and occupational exposure to Xylene and its health concerns. EXCLI Journal, 14, 1167.

Silverstein, B. A. (2018). Risk assessments using the Strain Index and the TLV for HAL, Part II: Multi-task jobs and prevalence of CTS. Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene, 15(2), 157-166.

Tsunoda, M. (2016). Environmental toxicology: biological and health effects of pollutants. CRC press.

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