Pharmacy Loyalty Paper Sample

Published: 2022-04-05 16:45:21
Pharmacy Loyalty Paper Sample
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories: Research Pharmacology Customer service
Pages: 8
Wordcount: 1990 words
17 min read
143 views

4.0 Introduction

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Loyalty cards, in the pretext of community relationships, can adversely erode customer loyalty. However, in the field of pharmacy where pharmaceutical patronage commands the manner in which societies co-exist; consumer behavior is a key determinant. Investigating some of the factors influencing prescription loyalty in the choice of drugs is significant in understanding the response of physicians in regard to promoting pharmaceutical-related activities. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to study the various factors that influence pharmacy loyalty behavior among Malaysian customers. Secondly, this empirical study will center on the relationship between customer satisfaction, quality service as well as behavioral intentions. Furthermore, this study will also attempt to empirically identify the most important factors influencing physician loyalty in terms of buying habits and pharmaceutical practices. Towards the end of the study, the model will attempt to demonstrate how pharmacy loyalty is a consequence of quality service delivery through the use of research hypothesis.

Data Analysis and Findings

4.1 Coding and Data Entry

Data coding is important for both qualitative and quantitative data analysis. Effective data coding works in the manner that information is concealed directly by substituting one letter for another, one number for another or even one number for a letter to be used in facilitating analysis in computer software. However, the analysis of data virtually begins with the labeling of data source while stating how the contained information was collected. In the research involving pharmacy loyalty behavior among Malaysian customers, coding and data entry is quite cumbersome in that the original data which is presented in form of mailed questionnaires, observations and interviews are in large quantities.

Based on the survey conducted in the research of pharmacy loyalty behavior among Malaysian customers, the following data shows the results of the empirical study;

Question No. Variable Name Operation Division Coding Col. Type

1.0 Trust The store meets my expectation Strongly Agree 4-5

1.1 Trust The store guarantees satisfaction Strongly Agree 4-5

1.2 Trust The store is honest and sincere in addressing my concerns Agree 3

1.3 Trust I feel confident in the store Agree 3

1.4 Trust The store would make an effort to satisfy me Agree 3-4

1.5 Trust I could rely on the store to solve my problems Disagree 1-2

1.6 Trust The store would compensate me in some way for the problem with the product Strongly Disagree 1

1.7 Service Quality The employees provide prompt services Agree 3

1.8 Service Quality Sales transactions and records are error free Strongly Disagree 1

1.9 Service Quality The store has operation hours convenient to you Agree 3-4

2.0 Service Quality The store has a friendly merchandise return policy Agree 2-3

2.1 Perceived Value The store offers discounts and holds sales promotions Strongly Agree 4-5

2.2 Perceived Value The store has a loyalty program (Member Card) or discount coupons Agree 2-3

2.3 Perceived Value The store advertises its promotions in newspapers or mailers & flyers Strongly Agree 4-5

2.4 Perceived Value The store organizes special promotional campaigns or events Agree 4

2.5 Satisfaction I am very satisfied with the service provided by this store Disagree 1-2

2.6 Satisfaction I am very satisfied with this store Disagree 1-2

2.7 Satisfaction I am very happy with this store Agree 3-4

2.8 Satisfaction I am very satisfied with the service provided by this store Disagree 1-2

2.9 Satisfaction This store does a good job of satisfying my needs Disagree 2

3.0 Satisfaction The service-products provided by this store is very satisfactory Disagree 2

3.1 Revisit I plan to continue to shop at this store Agree 3-4

3.2 Revisit I will shop more frequently at this store in the future Agree 3-4

3.3 Revisit It is very likely that I shop at this store in the future Agree 3-4

3.4 Revisit This store is my first choice for health-related merchandise shopping Agree 3

3.5 Revisit I will continue to be a loyal customer of this store Strongly Agree 4-5

3.6 Word of Mouth I say positive things about this store to other people Strongly Agree 4-5

3.7 Word of Mouth I would positively recommend this store to other people Strongly Agree 4-5

3.8 Word of Mouth I would recommend this store to those who need health-related products Strongly Agree 4-5

4.2 Data Screening

Ideally, understanding value estimation and distribution is extremely an important part of completing this study. The data provided in the compatibility mode is a discrete or continuous data. For this reason, an elaborate multiple regression analysis techniques would be viable in identifying the missing values in the cells. While using multiple regressions analysis to carry out the data screening, the multivariate normal procedure will be employed due to its flexibility and reliability in estimating results. When seeking to conduct a regression analysis for this study, the variables with no missing data and those with the missing value as the dependent variable will be used. When seeking to calculate a predicted value for the missing value, the predicted number will be rounded to the nearest possible discrete value. As such, the final procedure is iterated by the use of an imputed missing value derived from the estimation phase.

The purpose of conducting data screening procedure for this study is to help provide reasonable estimates of the missing values in the compatibility mode. Therefore, it is expected that the whole procedure of data screening will provide reasonable estimates of the missing values upon completion. However, when employing this procedure alongside scatter plots and histogram diagrams, this procedure is capable of verifying the majority of data assumptions right before performing the actual analysis. Therefore, outlined below is a comprehensive pair-wise break down of a number of loyalty behavior customers showing the missing numbers in each and every pair of the variables with respect to the discussed procedures.

Information showing the pair-wise missing data of Malaysian loyalty customers

X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 X10

T1 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 3

T2 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 4

T3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3

SQ1 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 5 4 3

SQ2 3 3 5 3 3 5 3 3 3 3

SQ3 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 4

PV1 3 4 4 3 5 4 4 3 4 5

PV2 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 3

PV3 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4

S1 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 3 2

S2 2 3 3 4 2 3 3 2 3 2

S3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

R1 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 5 4 4

R2 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4

R3 3 4 5 5 3 5 4 3 4 3

WM1 4 3 4 3 5 4 3 4 4 4

WM2 4 5 3 3 5 3 3 5 3 5

List showing discrete variables and values of loyalty customers

Variable Value 1 Count 1 Value 2 Count 2 Value 3 Count Value 4 Count Value 5 Count 5 Value 6 Count6 Value 7 Count 7

T 1(3) 2(4) 3(3) 4(3) 5(3) 6(4) 7(3)

SQ 1(3) 2(4) 3(4) 4(3) 5(4) 6(3) 7(3)

PV 1(4) 2(3) 3(3) 4(4) 5(3) 6(3) 7(4)

S 1(5) 2(3) 3(3) 4(5) 5(3) 6(3) 7(5)

R 1(3) 2(4) 3(2) 4(4) 5(4) 6(4) 7(3)

WM 1(4) 2(3) 3(4) 4(3) 5(4) 6(3) 7(4)

4.3 Demographic Profile

1 Gender 5 Highest level of education

Male Secondary School

Female Diploma

Bachelor Degree

2 Ethnicity Master Degree

Malay PHD/ Other doctorate

Chinese Indian Others (Please specify):

3 Age (years) 6 Occupation

18-20 years Professional

21 - 30 years Manager

31 - 40 years Executive

41-50 years Clerical

51-60 years Full time student

above 60 years Unemployed

Others (Please specify):

4 Marital Status Single 7 Monthly Income

Married Below RM 2,000

Divorced/widow RM 2,001- RM 4,000

RM 4,001 - RM 6,000

RM 6,001 - RM 8,000

Above RM 8,000

4.4 Descriptive Analysis

Descriptive analysis is another key determinant that influences pharmacy loyalty behavior among Malaysian customers. In this report, therefore, we seek to examine quantitative descriptive statistical coefficients of data that summarizes all the customer loyalty concerns. Based on the entire population of the sample size of this study, the information will be broken down into variability measures of normality test, standard deviation and validity test as shown below;

Descriptive statistical data showing standard deviation

Type of Data Variable Value Count Missing Count Minimum Maximum Mean Standard Deviation

Discrete T 25 0 2 29 15.5 1.1196

Discrete T 30 0 3 45 24 1.1274

Discrete T 30 0 1 12 6.5 0.3456

Discrete T 28 0 1 3 2 0.0234

Continuous SQ 27 0 1 4 2.5 0.0465

Continuous SQ 30 0 1 6 3.5 0.0525

Continuous SQ 29 1 2 6 4 0.0624

Continuous SQ 30 0 2 6 4 0.0624

Discrete PV 26 4 1 6 3.5 0.0525

Discrete PV 27 3 3 9 6 0.3559

Discrete PV 27 0 2 6 4 0.0493

Continuous S 30 0 2 6 4 0.0526

Continuous S 26 4 1 18 9.5 0.7934

Continuous S 25 0 1 8 4.5 0.0367

Discrete R 25 5 1 40 20.5 1.1239

Discrete R 30 0 2 6 4 0.0356

Discrete R 27 0 1 6 3.5 0.0525

4.5 Exploratory Data Analysis

An exploratory data analysis of determinants that influence pharmacy loyalty behavior among Malaysian customers looks at the quantitative and graphical representation of the empirical study. In this research, therefore, the main emphasis is on the empirical analysis of the descriptive data showing the effect of customer loyalty behavior in the society.

4.6 Hypothesis Testing

Primarily, this research is null and alternative hypothesis due to the differences in the population sample collected from the pharmaceutical loyalty customers. According to the study carried out, the zero difference is the effect of loyalty relationship as carried out in the field through word of mouth. Therefore, after carefully examining the loyalty behavior of Malaysian customers in regard to pharmaceutical study, it can be concluded that;

Establishing that the empirical study is a Null Hypothesis (HO): The mean mark for the pharmacy loyalty behavioral test is different across the entire population sample. This implies that the perceived value, service quality, satisfaction and trust in the services being provided at the store is not the same across the customers interviewed. For instance, the survey found out that quite a number of customers did not agree that the store has operation hours convenient to them and as such they are less likely to frequently shop at the store in the future despite pledging loyalty and full support to the store. Furthermore, the customers strongly agree to the fact that the store has a friendly merchandise return policy and for his reason, they feel confident in the services being provided in the store.

4.7 Chapter Summary

The empirical study of determinants influencing pharmacy loyalty behavior among Malaysian customers' attempts to look into the relationship that exists between customer satisfaction, quality service as well as behavioral intentions. Furthermore, this study has also sought to empirically identify some of the most important factors influencing physician loyalty in terms of buying habits and pharmaceutical practices. Based on data coding and data entry, the information is concealed directly by substituting one letter for another, one number for another or even one number for a letter to be used in facilitating analysis in computer software.

More so, data entry and coding provides that the original data which is presented in form of mailed questionnaires, observations and interviews are in large quantities and as such proper care should be taken in analyzing the data. In regard to descriptive statistics, the model demonstrates how pharmacy loyalty is a consequence of quality service delivery through the use of research hy...

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