Question 1. Socrates in Crito
Socrates decides it is immoral to repay evil with evil. To him breaking the laws of his country is a great betrayal and would have acted unjustly to the nation. The principle of lesser evil should have applied in the case of Socrates. The law states that when one comes across two immoral possibilities, the one which is lesser corrupt should be chosen (Aubrey 2015). Saving one's life and breaking the laws of a country is the lesser evil compared with losing one's life and being loyal to the nation. The execution planned to assassinate Socrates will have caused tremendous injustice to Socrates and the rest of the members of the society. Socrates ought to have applied the utilitarian principle which will eventually benefit him and to the more substantial number of his friends.
Pragmatically he will create a sad legacy to his comrades. The society will think that they were less concerned about the Socrates assassination. Socrates should embrace the quality of courage and take a higher risk of going into exile. He should not be mindful about the expenses incurred for seeking his asylum. He should be ready to break the principle of justice to save his life. Justice should not be adored over the respect of human life. The laws of the country are made by human beings and can be amended. Life is a gift from the Maker and to terminate it would have the consequential immoral act and at the end will be incommunicable.
It is morally permissible for Socrates to escape from prison. The principle of lesser evil is necessary in the Socrates case. He should go to Athens to save his life. This will show that Socrates has actualized the knowledge of justice to wisdom. Remaining loyal to the dictates and norms of the law will be immoral which will cause a lot of injustice to him and the society. His assassination will bring an emptiness to the country and bridge the gap will consume a lot of time. It will bring sorrow, sufferings, and trouble to the society.
Question 2. Virtue
Aristotle defines virtue as the condition of the intellect that assists an individual to live a happy life. It revolves around the human mind. The qualities are of two kinds; moral and intellectual. Character determines the nature of the virtue. The aspect entails individual outlooks that relate to different situations, the sentiments, rationale, reaction, decision making and the actualization of the acts.
The example of virtue is honesty. It brings elevation, integrity and adds value to a human being. A person who is honest per se is the one who is conscious, rationally and voluntarily guided by the three principles in doing the action. A transparent person is the one who practices truthfulness all the time and can be responsible. Honesty people can be productive leaders who act as mentors to others. This virtue can be instilled in a person through moral education. Moral education is essential because one's needs, sentiments, emotions, and feelings may not be in line with ethical actions.
According to Aristotle he defines virtue as the mean between two dissipations that want to be circumvented. The character of being honest is the mean, where one is usually truthful, but knows when to be thoughtful or tactful, and when to deceive. Virtue is the unique mean between dualistic dissipations (Aristotle 2015). The goodness drops between the limits, but where it rests is reliant on a specific situation. According to Aristotle, a virtuous person is an individual who fathoms how to channel realistic incidences by implementing principles in a way appropriate to each circumstance.
The virtue of being honest is intrinsically good in itself and has positive consequences. It brings transparency, justice, and truth in society. One can achieve purity by self-formation, moral education, and personal experiences. The individuals in a community should not be immoral by being deceitful, crooked, mediocre and following improper ways to achieve their ends. Honesty should be treasured and upheld as a virtue.
Question 3. Philosophical Meaning of Objective and Subjective
Objectivity has a great connection to reality and in matters pertaining the truth. Truth is the conformity of the intellect with the fact. To be objective one has to be in the line of truth without being biased, tribal, stereotyping, or being a victim of prejudices. An individual who is objective follows justice and is impartial in dealing with others. Actual knowledge refers to the information of fair certainty.
An objective judgment refers to a verdict grounded on empirically substantial supporting evidence. This judgment is supported by verification which can be relied upon by any rational being. The objectivity of a thing is envisaged solely by the visible allowance in space and time. The law of gravity is an appropriate example in dealing with matters of objectivity. The natural law is a universal principle of any part of the world. An object thrown up on the air will always come down without determining the faith of the person who has put on the air, the love towards that object, the color or even its value. It is realistic and the truth of the matter any object thrown in the air will follow the law of gravity.
Subjective centers on personal awareness, activity, actuality, and facts as defined by various persons. It is the aggregate of empirical observations, involvements, hopes, individual or ethnic considerations and beliefs to particular people. It juxtaposes the philosophy of objectivity which outlooks the truth or the reality of the matter. Subjectivity is a process of individuation; the specific person is never secluded in a self-contaminated atmosphere but infinitely engaging in relations with the surrounding of the world (Kant 2014).
The taste of coconut may be different to some people. One may term as a coconut to be sweet and a delicious fruit while another may term the fruit to be boring and tasteless. It is the subjective difference between varieties of people. The taste depends on the subject or the receiver. Playing guitar and piano may be attractive to some individuals while to others is a waste of time. Relativity profoundly connects to the philosophy of subjectivity, and the person is the measure.
God is the necessary being who the measure of absolute truth is. People have the obligation follow the divine command. The objectivity brings oneness and avoids pluralism among the society. Individuals should train their mind to pursue the truth, the reality and be independent on the earthly planet. The ethical implication of objectivity brings truth, reduces immoral behaviors of dishonesty and brings solidarity among the people. It focuses the common good of the ones in the society. It brings peace, serenity, tranquility, and happiness to those in the nation.
Aristotle, Metaphysics, Joe Sachs (trans.) Green Lion Press, 2014
Nozick, Robert. Invariances: the Structure of the Objective World. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2015
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