Emission testing is an experimental process normally carried out to gauge the characteristics emissions from industrial waste and gas stream into the atmosphere. The materials emitted could either be liquid, solid, organic, gas, or inorganic. The seepage pollutants which are emitted from a source to the atmosphere could contain several diverse pollutant materials. Seepage measurements and procedures of sampling follow particular protocols and test methods so as to ensure accurate and representative emission data. There are numerous reasons why source emission data is obtained on the amount and type of material emitted from moving cars on the road (Deily and Gray, 1991).
Random emission testing is meant to assess emission performance of 0.5 percent of the subject fleet per annum. However, 20,000 vehicles are statistically required for sampling the quality of this test and repair program. Additionally, the program is purposed to instill fear on drivers and make them reluctant to tamper with their cars, especially after the test, or to evade the program. As with the roadblocks for drunk-drivers, the hidden purpose of this program is to compel everyone into compliance, thus reducing air pollution.
Establishing green spaces and urban Forest
Forests and trees are prominent fundamentals of urban nature because of their color, size and shape. Their usage and benefits range from the intangible aesthetic and psychological benefits to mitigation of air pollution and amelioration of urban climate. The major benefits of forests and urban trees historically relate to aesthetic, recreational and health benefits in industrialized cities. Besides, green areas sustain life through provision of fodder, fuel, food, timber and wood. Currently, woods, trees and woodlands are significant to people particularly through symbolizing local, community personal and cultural meanings. They create a very pleasant environment for numerous urban outdoor activities.
Urban trees and forests improve the quality of air and subsequently, the health of urban residents. For instance, the leaves of trees take up several pollutants including nitric acid vapor, ozone, ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and other particles. These pollutants can otherwise cause a series of health problems if left on their own. What is more, trees give valuable shading from the sun. One tree can give a 6 to 10 Sun Protection Factor, meaning, the level of exposure of human to ultraviolet radiation is slightly lower.
Green spaces on the other hand, have abundant benefit to the environment. They filter dust and pollutants from the air and provide lower temperatures and shade in urban areas. They also reduce soil erosion and prevent soil from being carried to the waterways. In the Urban centers, more green space within the boundaries of the city can regulate climate and air quality, reduce energy consumption through countering the warming effects of paved surfaces, and recharge ground water supplies and protect streams and lakes from polluted runoff. Similarly, proper landscaping tends to reduce nitrate leaching from soil to water supply and reduce runoff of surface water thus keeping phosphorus and other pollutants away from waterways and prevent septic system overload.
When considering how trucks and cars generate such a hefty part of greenhouse gas pollution in the world, its easy to overlook whatever lies beneath them. Yet under all that traffic, roads exist. Further, the paving material itself and how it is placed have an astounding impact on the atmosphere. Energy is used in constructing of each byway and highway, whether its made of concrete, asphalt or gravel; whether it is an endless flat stretch that runs across the prairie, a narrow ribbon that winds around mountains, or a congested freeway. The way roads are built and maintained has a substantial impression on how vehicles that crawl or roll on the surface will burn energy. As such, roads must be built in a way that reduces energy consumption of vehicles that use them to a certain level.
Carpooling also referred as ride sharing, car sharing or covoiturage basically means sharing car journeys such that more than one person will travel in a car. Through more people using one vehicle, travel costs such as fuel, and toll as well as driving stress are reduced. Carpooling is viewed as a more sustainable and an environmental friendly way of travelling since sharing journeys tend to reduce traffic congestion and most importantly reduces carbon emissions on t roads (DeLoach and Tiemann, 2010). Authorities need to encourage carpooling, especially in moments of high level pollution though it would be much better if people practiced carpooling throughout.
The amount of pollution that an automobile emits and the consumption of fuel on the same automobile are functions of number of trips made and number of miles driven. Carpooling will help reduce both of these. Carpooling reduces amount of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides, hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxides. All this toxic particulates affect the environment negatively. Nitrogen dioxide and hydrocarbons combine to form ozone commonly known as smog. The effect of ozone is that it irritates the nose, respiratory system, throat, and eyes. Carbon dioxide is the main contributor of global warming and carbon monoxide causes headaches, lethargy and drowsiness and can be exceedingly fatal in extreme cases.
Explain the following statement: Decision-making about environmental issues necessitates the maintenance of a fine balance between the effectiveness of measures and the public reaction towards them.
Through use of proper decision making techniques, the world can be steered into a new evolution; one which does not have to involve the earth dying around us, but allows the earth to flourish with us. As a race of living organisms, we have to learn so much about how to care for something that is so special and something that sustains our life. For instance, when it comes to global warming, there are several ways that can enable us to leverage its effects. This could be by use of less heat and air, by purchasing products that are energy sufficient, driving smatter and driving less. These measures have already been tested by several countries and succeeded. This is a clear indicator that the decision making stroked a fine balance between public reaction and effectiveness of measures.
DeLoach, S and Tiemann, T.(2010). Not driving alone: Commuting in the Twenty-first century, Elon University Department of Economics. 2010.
Deily, M., Gray W. (1991). Enforcement of Pollution Regulations in a declining Industry. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management pp. 260-274
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