The first paper Living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at the end of life: a phenomenological study succinctly describes the paper and the area of concern that the paper is dealing with. The reader can get an adequate picture of what they expect the paper to be, especially with regards to end of life treatment for patients with obstructive pulmonary disease that is chronic in nature (Ek & Ternestedt, 2008). On the other hand, the quantitative study dubbed randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study of caffeine in patients with intermittent claudation provides both the method of the research and the content of research within the title. As such, the analysis of this title finds that it is possibly quite too long and may have to move some part of it into the methodology section, especially where the authors are talking about randomized double-blind approaches to doing the study. Nonetheless, the part about placebo-controlled study of caffeine in patients with intermittent claudation provides sufficient explanation concerning the aim of the study and the gist thereof (Momsen, et al., 2010).
The abstract to the qualitative study gives an overview of the paper including the aim of the study, the background information to the study, the methods used in the course of carrying out the study, findings and the conclusion. The findings summarize what the study found, namely that there was a patients view to the meaningfulness of life when they had COPD, which meant that there was limited physical activity that could lead to isolation. Furthermore, the background information gives symptoms of the disease which could give an inference as to why patients suffer this kind of emotional drama and hurt. The conclusion gives the nurses a recommendation as to the nursing care approaches that could be used to better engage the patients in the course of treatment, to avoid a situation where patients simply exist rather than live. The object of the quality of life and its relation to the study is brought forward in the abstract.
The quantitative approach study, on the other hand, gives an entire overview of the experiment conducted during these clinical trials succinctly within the abstract section. The information on the entirety of the study can be covered simply by reading the abstract. Nonetheless, one notices that half of the heading is also the method that the study used to come up with the results, and this again comes up for criticism since the method could easily be mentioned in the methods section rather than putting it in the title. The abstract gives information on the test results of the patients and an overall conclusion that while caffeine may be good for intermittent claudication, it has some effects on the balance of the person. Nonetheless, other aspects of the patients mobility are increased significantly.
On the qualitative paper, the authorial credibility is something to be extrapolated since one of the authors is a doctoral student while the other author is a professor in palliative care within the institution of higher learning. While it cannot be said for certain, we would assume that the professor is knowledgeable in the area of palliative care and can thus offer authoritative research in the area. Furthermore, it can be said to be a joint research venture under supervision. Therefore, the research can be validated as one that has been reviewed by a professional conversant with the area of nursing and palliative care.
The quantitative paper on the other hand, was written by members of the surgical research units in the Regional Hospital of Herning and the University Hospital of Aarhus among other practicing researchers and medical practitioners in Denmark. As such, there is reason to believe that in the course of their pursuits, these individuals have accrued sufficient knowledge in the area of intermittent claudication treatment so as to have authoritative views on the subject matter. Furthermore, they engage in vivid description of the disease attributes. Having engaged in clinical trials with caffeine on human beings, it would be rightly assumed that they are highly qualified and trained in the area of biological research and in specific, the treatment of intermittent claudication.
The qualitative study gives a strong introduction and background information into the effects of the disease. The authors give the basic symptoms of the disease, and why the patients find that in the course of treatment they are left out. Furthermore, the introduction deals with approaches to COPD that have been used in previous studies and the reason for the qualitative nature of the study undertaken. In addition, the background information and introductive part of the paper give the readers the reason why the author chose to pursue this specific area, namely because the quality of life of patients with this disease has not been keenly looked at so much as the theory in caring for such patient. It thus introduces the aspect that the research is most keen to achieve, which is a way to effectively care for patients with COPD at their end-of-life stage.
The quantitative study was more concerned with finding the solution to constant pains at the calf occasioned by intermittent claudication without having to resort to the short-period rests that patients did. As such, the introduction of this paper provides the problem that the research was aiming to solve in its inception, which is joint pain for patients with the disease in question. The introduction also brings in the aspect of caffeine and its significance in the study. Main sources of the caffeine are mentioned just to make it more clear to the reader on the qualities needed for this experiment. Thereafter, the authors delve into the details of how caffeine is expected to have some effect on this pain once applied in some specific way to the patients body. This is because caffeine is known to be a stimulant to the human brain when taken in healthy amounts, accounting for up to 85% increase in oxygen intake for young people. Bearing this in mind, the introduction gives the hypothesis that the study uses, namely caffeine intake for better body performance in people with intermittent claudication.
The quantitative paper doesnt set aside a place for a literature review. This could be the effect of having to do the research based on findings from the results of the experiment rather than a number of sources giving specific information with regards to the topic question. It is also possible that the researchers have delved into a completely new area of interest, especially considering that this is a clinical trial of assumptions that they have concerning the disease in question. As such, the lack of a literature review can be excused as important on the work, since it may have largely depended on the assertions of the researchers as pioneers in this particular area of research. Nonetheless, the research makes use of reference to other works within its writing so that it is not without reference to other works in the area.
The qualitative study on the other hand, contains a brief literature review in the background section where the authors give descriptive information on the disease and how it affects patients. With up to date information coming up to the year 2006, the research engages the reader with other authors on the topic who have found on various aspects of COPD, and what aspects they found in relation to the topic in question. The literature review culminates in the presentation of the aim of the study, which ensures that it is not purely descriptive. A review of this literature gives the reader a double-edged and critical view of the issues being presented in the paper.
The papers do not give a theoretical framework for how the study is going to be conducted. They move directly to the methods of the study.
Hypotheses, Aims, Objectives
The quantitative paper gives its aims clearly and simplistically: whether caffeine if administered in a certain dose would reduce the adverse effects of intermittent claudication. I find that this statement of the objective is clear, concise and the embodiment of the entire research paper in just one statement. The qualitative paper, on the other hand, stated that there was need to explain the living condition of the COPD patients during their palliative stage. This fails to mention the purpose of looking into the quality of living and the reader has to find out for themselves at the end of the paper what the entire purpose of investigating these living conditions were. As such, this objective is insufficient as it doesnt cover the root cause of engaging in the research.
The quantitative paper gives an approach as to how the study is going to be conducted. Legibility of the participants is given, in that they needed to meet criteria such as being over 40 years of age, having intermittent claudication and having no symptoms while at rest. There were also exclusion factors given in the research including where patients had dementia, diabetes among other select diseases that would have significant effect on measuring study outcomes. The randomization protocol would be used for the purpose of the research and an unrelated pharmacy group would produce the caffeine doses that would be required for the purpose of the research. The study also gives an adequate description of the testing procedures down to the measurements that would be taken and analyzed as the results of the study, including blood pressure. Furthermore, the paper gives the randomization design and further a double-blinding effect by employing the services of an unrelated manufacturer for the doses in question. Stratification in the randomization technique was also used. The paper gives a proper analysis into the research methods and design so that the reader could easily understand and replicate the experiment they carried out if need be. I find that this is the most appropriate method that could be used for this research as it ensured that there was minimal error in the measurements that the study was going to obtain. Further, the research method factored in the consideration of the number of respondents that were going to participate in the study.
The qualitative paper describes its use of the Giorgis phenomenological method of analysis. This means that the research would get information by gathering right from where the experiences occurred. The research would make use of the patients responses as the main source of information in this study. The study made some inclusive requirements for patients at the palliative stage including those needing to be on oxygen, among other characteristics. In my opinion, the research method was adequately described by reference to Giorgis approach. I think that the study including 8 patients was quite limited as tis was quite a small sample population. It would pose serious challenges when one would want to replicate the results of the study since only a small number of patients feel the same way about this condition. Nonetheless, this method was appropriate for this research considering that only a very small number of people suffer from COPD up to the palliative stage. The method was appropriate as the sample population was not quite large and could be accommodated by the method used by the researchers, namely going out to the field to get the information they need.
Ethical Implications of the Study
The quantitative paper seems to have taken into consideration the ethical concerns of patients. Considering that the study was conducted in a hospital, it is assumed that consent from the responde...
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