Research paper about solid waste management
A significant health and safety issue in urban areas is the appropriate administration of solid garbage (World Bank, 2003). Nabegu (2010) indicates that solid waste control in metropolitan centres, is a significant urban initiative that provides environmental care and people's health. However, the author argues that there have been considerable difficulties in enhancing better service in solid waste management, particularly so in developing nations. The reason has been observed to be the rapid development of urban community coupled with the lack of adequate planning for urban growth, inadequate guidance on management strategies of solid trash, and high costs of operations (Nkwoada et al., 2013). This literature review is based on the case study of Kano metropolis and attempts to assess the public-led undertakings in strategies for better waste administration.
The results of the research done by Butu and Mshelia (2014) showed that the most conspicuous features in the Kano area are the heaps of solid urban garbage. These findings also got supported by Nabegu and Mustapha (2015) from the outcome of their survey on litter disposal techniques of the Kano area. The majority of the people engage in illegal dumping of wastes while at the same time complain of lack of enough sites for disposal. The dumping of waste is done recklessly, either on riversides, along with road walks or paths. In different parts of the globe, people have gotten ignored as passive actors in public services, and usually are not even considered in the community decision-making process (Mukisa, 2009).
Waste management case study
Consequently, the results of this kind of governance are that communities fail to acknowledge the tasks they can undertake. Hence, Mukisa (2009) recommends that among the many strategies of garbage disposal and management, involvement could be a missing element as an ingredient in effective solid waste control. Furthermore, research has shown that public participation can be resourceful even in recycling habits. Likewise, Nabegu and Mustapha (2015) indicate that Nigeria has been in the processes of establishing better measures but to no avail. Since the inception of the Refuse Management and Sanitation Board (REMASAB), progress had begun on the management of waste in Kano state, however, population demographics has proven more inefficiencies and thus, open for consideration to strategies like stakeholder participation (Nabegu and Mustapha, 2015).
In light of these matters, review of the literature has shown that management practices such as partnerships with both public and private sectors could foster participation in proper garbage management. In spite of the public engagement being able to guarantee success in managing disposal practices of wastes, Nkwoada et al. (2013) have doubts on whether creating awareness to the public about the proper control of solid garbage could result in the enhancement of people's perception and collaboration.
Garbage management research
However, it was Abila and Kantola (2013) who noted that the collaboration garbage administration, from the private enterprises, is evident as government institutions are supporting the non-government sectors by providing shared services. Conversely, the residential owners are still not inclined towards participation such as through payment for waste produced, despite the fact that these requirements are associated with the area and lifestyle conditions, and not the quantity of garbage produced (Nkwoada et al., 2013). Consequently, the private sectors have limited their deals to residential areas of middle and high wage earners. Although, peoples' engagement in such types of waste control, is the determinant of success.
According to Amasuomo, Omagbemi and Hasnain (2015), there are different corrective approaches in developing countries, although, they have been less effective. For example, Nigeria has experienced challenges in solving waste control issues and the various strategies used have been less active in the urban areas especially due to the diverse needs and structure of each city in the country, and also the fact that these frameworks are bureaucratic and expensive (Amasuomo, 2015). The attempt to develop better management of litter has been argued that involving the public in control activities could have positive outcomes.
Nevertheless, it is fundamental to understand that the aspects which affect the peoples' reaction and collaboration in waste and environmental health affairs includes: programs for garbage disposal, the availability of best-suited facilities, and knowledge about the impacts related to poor management of garbage. Therefore, there needs to be adequate information sharing and understanding about the obstacles of community involvement in developing countries, for sustainable implementation of managing trash, and also be active in establishing suitable initiatives such as behavioural changes (Imam et al., 2009). Elizabeth O'Connell (2011) agrees that in spite of the differences among people and unions, there is still a similarity of overlooking substances and disposing of them as waste.
IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE PRACTICE
O'Connell (2011) suggests that the emerging proponents of minimizing garbage are being implemented not only in compliance with rules and regulations but also research on people's perception and social behaviour and their influence to waste reduction. Indeed, the missing gaps in the management of waste can be answered through public participation, as the feasible solution. Therefore, with much support from research that autocratic methodologies of waste administration can no longer be viable, the involvement of people in decision-making and practices of garbage disposal is inevitable.
According to Mukisa (2009), one importance of engaging communities is the procedural sorting of waste at various phases from the source to disposal areas. Butu and Msheila (2014) highlighted that in the Kano area systematic sorting was lacking. Furthermore, incineration in the main towns in Kano has also been futile due to mostly unsorted wastes. In essence, general sorting should be a task facilitated by the people from the sources of wastes, just because, sorting enables management of solid trash sustainably (Mukisa, 2009).
Also, research has observed that developing countries have tendencies of disposing of waste in a manner that would only require the intervention of the public as remedies to poor substantial disposal techniques. Imam et al. (2008) found out that the common disposal method in Nigeria in public areas is unmanaged dumping, that is limited to flat fringe areas and thus, considerably, leads to polluted runoffs and percolation of leachate as well as pollution of water sources, soil, river ways and canals. Uncontrolled disposal as carried out by the public, has devastating impacts as Mukisa (2009) points out, nevertheless, in itself, waste disposal is not a sustainable method of controlling wastes. It can be managed and prevented by involving the communities in waste administration and disposal techniques.
Solid waste management study
Also, Nabegu and Mustapha (2015) postulate that since the environmental issue in Kano metropolis should be attended by the local government, participation of private sectors and the community can be of great importance. For example, the private sectors can engage ideally in all stages of solid waste control, and that is gathering all hospital, household and commercial garbage; implement transportation of wastes from sources to treatment and dumping areas. In this case, treatment would get comprised of activities such as sorting, recycling, compost and incineration (Nabegu and Mustapha, 2015).
According to Ramachandra and Bachamanda (2007), the elevated considerations for the environment and well-being has led increased sensitization of the society with strong motivations to engage in proper management behaviours of garbage disposal. In other words, control of solid waste requires a framework that actively involves the public in assessing obstacles from processes of consultation and determining alternatives as well as agreeable favorable solutions. Education and information sharing as a practical advantage of sustainable waste control are significant in developing collaboration and involvement of the Kano metropolis peoples (Nabegu, 2010).
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