Pathophysiology paper on Diabetes 2

Published: 2019-12-04 08:30:00
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Diabetes is a condition that takes place in the body when there is a lack of balance between the insulin hormone being produced and used. Diabetes 2 particularly takes place due to the insufficient supply of insulin in the blood but not necessarily due to the absolute lack of it.

Morbidity and the Mortality

According to the American Diabetes Association, the number of people that had Diabetes in the year 2015 was 29.1 millionCITATION Placeholder1 \p 12 \l 1033 (Sellers, et al., 2016, p. 12). More senior Americans acquire the disease more than any other segment of the population. About 11.8 million seniors are reported to have the condition, and the number represents 25.9 % of the populationCITATION Placeholder1 \p 89 \l 1033 (Sellers, et al., 2016, p. 89). The disease is the seventh largest killer in the United States. Native Americans are the most affected by the condition, and they represent 15.9 % of the population.

Etiology of the Disease

Many of the people that have the Diabetes disease have a high level of glucose in their blood as well. High blood glucose is also called hyperglycemia. The condition takes place as the body destroys the beta cells, which leads to insulin production. The body requires a particular optimum amount of insulin to function properlyCITATION Mar16 \p 66 \l 1033 (Buzga, Maresova, Seidlerova, Zonca, Holeczy, & Kamil, 2016, p. 66). When the insulin being produced does not satisfy the amount that is needed then the condition of diabetes forms. When people take in food, the food is broken down into smaller components for use by the body organs. Various theories have been put forth by scientists that try to understand the condition. In line with the theories, various behavior changes have been proposed to aid in the understanding of the disease. Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose and fats. Carbohydrate and fats are the source of energy for the body. The liver is responsible for the manufacture of glucoseCITATION Ton09 \p 73 \l 1033 (Tony, Sudhesh, Fau, Kaer, & Henning, 2013, p. 73).

Risk Factors

The danger of acquiring the disease increases when there is a family member that had the condition

Factors like the environment and the lifestyle might play a role in the accelerating of the disease.

When one is exposed to cow milk early, they are at a higher risk of getting the disease. Certain countries like Finland and Sweden have a higher affinity to the disease than others. The foods that people eat contribute to the higher affinity to the condition. Foods that have a lot of sugar have the likelihood to lead to the condition.


Insulin hormone is made by the beta cells of the pancreases. In a normally functioning person, the hormone is responsible for the regulation of the amount of sugar in the bloodCITATION Ton09 \p 77 \l 1033 (Tony, Sudhesh, Fau, Kaer, & Henning, 2013, p. 77). Excessive glucose in the blood means that insulin creates a stimulating effect on the cells for more and more absorption of the sugar as a means of regulating the level of sugar in the blood. Insulin hormone is also responsible for the stimulation of the absorption and storage of any excess glucose in the blood. Immediately after a meal the release of insulin is triggered. It is at the time after the meal that there is an increase in the level of glucose and energy in the bodyCITATION Placeholder1 \p 64 \l 1033 (Sellers, et al., 2016, p. 64). When the level of glucose in the blood falls, there is also a fall in the level of insulin in the body.

In Diabetes 1 the Insulin is attacked and destroyed by the beta cells of the pancreas that produce beta. Beta cells are destroyed, and this leads to the lower levels of insulin produced by the bodyCITATION Mar16 \p 56 \l 1033 (Buzga, Maresova, Seidlerova, Zonca, Holeczy, & Kamil, 2016, p. 56). Lower insulin production means that their body loses the ability to regulate the level of sugar in the body. Diabetes 1 can best be understood as an autoimmune disease where there is a deficiency in the level of the insulin-producing beta cells that are supposed to make the insulin regulate the level of blood sugar. The destruction of the beta cells can take some time to mature, but the disease takes days to form when it strikes. There are other conditions of the immune system that are associated with the Diabetes type1. Some of these conditions include hypothyroidism and vitiligo. Diabetes 1 always needs treatment by insulin therapy, and it does not respond to the use of oral drugs. Diabetes 2 is different from Diabetes 1 in the sense that contrary to Diabetes 1 it results from insulin deficiency that is relative and not a complete lack of insulin in the body. This is to say that the body is only unable to make the right amount of insulin enough for its needs. The beta cells that make insulin are in this case not sufficient to make the right amount of insulin meet the needs of the body. There is also another condition that is referred to as peripheral resistance of insulin that affects the way that the insulin in the body works. In the Diabetes 2, there is hence a reduced amount of insulin due to a reduced amount of beta cells and resistance towards the little existing amount of insulin in the body.

The main reason for the resistance in insulin action is obesity. Hence it is true that people that are obese are more prone to getting the Diabetes 2 condition than people that are not obese. In many of the cases many of the times the patient is left to inject insulin into the system when the oral drugs fail. The insulin injected into the body is expected to stimulate the production of more insulin into the body.

The table shows the differences between the two types of Diabetes. From the way that they look, one is the exact opposite of the other. By looking at such comparison, it is possible to ascertain the major differences between the two types of Diabetes and hence to strike an understanding of the two conditions via their distinction.

Whenever there are excessive hormones that counter the effects of insulin, there is likely to occur gestational Diabetes. Too much countering of the effects of insulin leads to the state of resistance to insulin. The pediatric population is experiencing an increase in the type 2 diabetes due to the prevalence of obesity. Children that are obese have the worst form of resistance to insulin. In most of the children that develop the condition, there is always a first or second level degree of a relative that has the same condition. A history of the condition in the house and family history is hence one other factor that influences the presence of the condition.

In the last ten years, only 3% of the case of Diabetes that occurred was connected to type 2 Diabetes. Today, however, there are more than 35% of the cases of Diabetes that occur and the most affected population, are the young people and the obese womenCITATION Ton09 \p 83 \l 1033 (Tony, Sudhesh, Fau, Kaer, & Henning, 2013, p. 83). The pathogenic composition of Diabetes 2 is one that is complex for the way that it involved many environmental and genetic factors. The developments of insulin resistance in the insulin and the liver, as well as the breakdown of the beta cells, are but some of the primary reasons that lead to the formation of the condition. When the condition begins to form early in the life of the patient the person is expected to become morbid and to have reduced lifespan.

Type 2 Diabetes is a condition that progresses with time, and one underlying factor that leads to the formation of this condition is a matter of the failure of beta cells function. The moment the beta cells cease to function the level of insulin production goes down and hence the increase in the level of sugar in the body as there is no regulation mechanismCITATION Ton09 \p 33 \l 1033 (Tony, Sudhesh, Fau, Kaer, & Henning, 2013, p. 33).

Signs and symptoms of the disease

There are various signs and symptoms of the condition. People experience excessive thirst, excessive hunger, blurred vision, cuts and sores that do not heal an increase in the level of urine in the night hours. When there is a high level of insulin, there will be a high uptake of glucose too. The mechanical breakdown of glucose is called glycolysis. The form of glucose that is formed for the purpose of storage is called glycogen. Glycogenesis is the process, by which the storage forms of glucose, glycogen, is formed. The synthesis and the uptake of the amino acids are also processes that take place during glycogenesis. Fats and proteins are also broken down and stored due to this process. Whenever there is a low amount of insulin in the body, there will be the promotion of the glycogenesis process.

Diagnosis Test

Low level of insulin promotes gluconeogenesis. Gluconeogenesis is the process where various substrates are broken down to release glucose. The Diagnosis is hence pegged to the test for the level of insulin in the blood. Low insulin also promotes the process of lipolysis. Lipolysis is the process where lipids are broken down to release glucose. Low insulin also promotes the breakdown of proteins into glucose in the process called lipolysis. The action of insulin is affected by the use of insulin receptors.

The following diagram shows the process that takes place to influence the levels of insulin in the body.

In the event of the low level of insulin in the body there occur processes like glycolysis and glycogenesis. Low levels of insulin lead to processes like gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Glycolysis and glycogenesis lead to the formation of triglyceride synthesis in the adipose tissue resulting in the uptake of amino acids. Low insulin leads to lipolysis within the fat tissue leading to the formation of proteolysis.


Metformin is the first type of treatment that is recommended for the treatment of the condition. The treatment works by increasing the bodys response to insulin so that the body can respond more rapidly to the low-level insulin in the body. When the body is well fed, there is an increase in the level of secretion of insulin to the blood. The increase in insulin leads to the process of glycolysis. The storage of glycogen also takes place. The process leads to the synthesis of fatty acids. Proteins are also synthesized in the same process. After the sleep and fast of the night, there is normally a low level of insulin in the body and a high level of glucagon that can cause an increase in the level of the breakdown of glycogen, lipolysis, and hepatic gluconeogenesis. When the body is subjected to a long period of fasting the level of insulin drops to the lowest, and so does the level of glucagon. The condition makes room for the formation of lipolysis. Minimization of gluconeogenesis takes place. What the process leads to wasting is Nitrogen, the buildup of ammonia, and muscle mass loss.

Complications and sequelae

Various hormones are responsible for the rise in the level of blood sugar. Hormones that lead to an increase in the level of sugar in the blood include norepinephrine, epinephrine, and glucagon. Growth hormone and cortisol are also other examples of hormones that lead to the rise in the level of the blood sugar level. All the above hormones are typically released in the body due to anxiety and stress of the body. The release of the above hormones is the reason why at times of stress the control of diabetes becomes worse, and the level of sugar in the body risesCITATION Ton09 \p 38 \l 1033 (Tony, Sudhesh, Fau, Kaer, & Henning, 2013, p. 38). At times of phases of stress like during pregnancy, an infection or a surgery it is expected that the level of sugar in the blood will rise. In explaining the formation of type 1 diabetes, it will assist in the further under...


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